Treaty of 1725

The submission and agreement of the Delegates of the Eastern Indians

(December 15, 1725, Boston, New England, British possession)


Whereas the several Tribes of the Eastern Indians viz the Penobscot, Narridgwolk, St. Johns Cape Sables & other Tribes Inhabiting within His Majesties Territorys of New England and Nova Scotia, who have been Engaged in the present War, from whom we Sauguaaram alias Loron Arexus Francois Xavier & Meganumbe are Delegated & fully Impowered to Enter into Articles of Pacification with His Majties Governments of the Massachusetts Bay New Hampshire & Nova Scotia Have contrary to the several Treatys they have Solemnly Entered into with the said Governments made an open Rupture & have continued some years in Acts of Hostility Against the subjects of His Majesty King George within the said Governments, They being now sensible of the Miseries and Troubles they have involved themselves in, and being Desirous to be restored to His Majesty’s Grace & Favour & to live in Peace with all His Majesties Subjects of the said three Governmts & the Province of New York and Colonys of Connecticut & Rhode Island, and that all former Acts of Injury be forgotten Have Concluded to make and we Do by these presents In the Name and behalf of the said Tribes make our Submission unto Hist Most Excellent Majesty George by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith & C. in as full and ample manner as any of our Predecessors have heretofore done.

And we do hereby Promise and Engage with the Honorable William Dummer Esqr as he is Lieutenant Governor & Comander in Chief of the said Province for the time being That is to say.

We the said Delegates for and in behalf of the several Tribes aforesaid Do Promise and Engage that at all times forever from and after the date of these presents We and they will lease and forbear all Acts of Hostility Injuries and Discords towards all the Subjects of the Crown of Great Britain, & not offer the lease hurt Violence or Molestation to them or any of them in their Persons or Estates, But will hence forward hold & maintain a firm and Constant Amity and Friendship with all the English and will never Confederate or Combine with any other Nation to their prejudice.

That all the Captives taken in this present War shall at or before the time of the further Ratification of this Treaty be Restored without any Ransom or payment to be made for them or any of them.

That His Majesties Subjects the English shall and may peaceable and Quietly Enter upon Improve & forever Enjoy all & Singular their rights of Land and former Settlements Properties & possessions within the Eastern parts of the said Province of the Massachusetts Bay Together with all Islands Islets, Shoars Beaches and Fishery within the same, without any Molestation or Claims by us, or any other Indians, and in no ways Molested Interupted, or disturbed therein.

Saving unto the Penoscot, Narridgewalk And other Tribes within His Majesties Province aforesaid and their Natural descendants respectively All their Lands liberties & properties not by them Conveyed or sold to, or possess’d by any of the English

Subjects or aforesaid As alsot the Privlege of Fishing, Hunting & Fowling as formerly.

That all Trade and Commerce which hereafter may be allowed betwixt the English & Indians shall be under such Management & Regulation, as the Government of the Massachusetts Province shall direct.

If any Controversy of difference at any time hereafter happen to arise between any of the English & Indians for any real or supposed wrong or injury done on either side, no private Revenge shall be taken for the same, but proper Application shall be made to His Majesty’s Government upon the place for remedy or Redress there in a due Course of Justice we submit Our selves to be Ruled and Governed by His Majesties Laws and desiring to have the Benefit of the same.

We also the said Delegates in behalf of the Tribes of Indians Inhabiting within the French Territorys who have assisted us in this War, for whom we are fully Impowered to Act in this present Treaty. Do hereby Promise and Engage that they and every of them shall henceforth lease and forbear all Acts of Hostility Force & Violence towards all and every the Subjects of His Majesty the King of Great Britain.

We do further in behalf of the Tribe of the Penobscot Indians Promise & Engage That if any of the other Tribes Intended

to be included in this Treaty, shall notwith standing refuse to Confirm & Ratify this present Treaty Entered into on their behalf & Continue or renew Acts of Hostility against the English in such case the said Penobscot Tribe shall Joyn their Young Men with the English in reducing them to reason.

In the next place we the aforenamed Delegated Do Promise and Engage with the Honorable John Wentworth Esqr as he is Lieutt Governor & Comander in Chief of His Majesties Province of New Hampshire & with the Governors & Comanders in Chief of the said Province for the time being, That we & the Tribes we are Deputed from, willhenceforth lease & Forbear all Acts of Hostility Injuries and Discords towards all the subjects of His Majesty King George within the said Province. And we do understand and take it that the said

Government of New Hampshire is also Included and Comprehend in all and every the Articles aforegoing, Excepting that respect the Regulating the Trade with us.

And further we the aforenamed Delegates Doe Promise & Engage with the Honoble Lawrence Armstrong Esqr Lt Governor & Comander in Chief of His Majesties Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie to live in peace with his Majesty’s Good Subjects & their Dependants in that Government according to the Articles agreed upon with Majr Paul Mascarene Commissioner

for that purpose & further to be Ratified as mentioned in the said Articles.

That this present Treaty shall be Accepted Ratified & Confirmed in a Public and Solemn Manner by the Chiefs of the several Eastern Tribes of Indians Including therein at Falmouth in Casco Bay so time in the Month of May next In whereof we have signed these present Affixed our Seals.

Dated in the Council Chamber in Boston in New England the fifteenth day of December Anno Domini One thousand seven hundred and Twenty five Annoq. RRS Georgii Magna Britanix &c Duodecimo.

Done in the presence of the Great & General Court or Assemble of

the Province of the Massachusetts Bay Aforesaid

Being first read distinctly & Interpreted by Capt. John Giles Capt. Saml Jordan & Capt. Joseph Bane sworn Interpreters.

Att J Willard Secry

Sauguaaram Alt Loron


Francois Xavier



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Ratification of 1725 Treaty


Whereas by the Articles of Peace and agreement Made & concluded upon att Boston in New England the Fifteenth Day of Decr: One Thousand Seven Hundred & twenty five by our Delegates & Representatives Sanguarum (allias Laruns) Alexis Francois Xavier & Meganumbe as appears by the Instruments then Sign’d Seal’d & Exchanged in the Presence of the Great & Generall Court or Afsembly of ye Mafsachusetts Bay by our Said Delegates in behalf of us the Said Indians of Penobscot, Norridgewolk, St Johns, Cape Sable, and the other Indian Tribes belonging to & inhabiting within these His Majesty of Great Britains Territories [of] Nova Scotia & New England & by Majr: Paul Mascarene Comifsioner from this Said Province in behalf of His Majesty by which Agreemt itt being requir’d that the Said Articles Shou’d be ratified [?] att His Majesty’s Fort of Annapolis Royall Wee the Chiefs & Representatives of the Said Indians with Full Power & Authority by Unanimous Consent 2 desire of the Said Indian Tribes are Come in Complyance with ye Articles Stipulated by our Delegates as aforesaid and do in Obedience thereunto Solemnly Confirm & ratifie y e Same & in Testimony thereof with Hearts full of Sincerity. Wee have Signed & sealed the following Articles being Conform to what was requir’d by the Said Majr Paul Mascarene & Promife to be perform’d by our Said Delegates.

Whereas His Majesty King George by the Concefsion of the Most Christian King made att the Treaty of Utrecht is become ye Rightfull Profsefsor of the Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia According to its ancient Boundaries wee the Said Chiefs & Representatives of ye Penobscott, Norridgewolk St. Johns, Cape Sables, & of the Other Indian Tribes Belonging to & inhabiting within This His Majesties Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia & New England do for our Selves & the Said Tribes Wee represent acknowledge His Said Majesty King George’s Jurisdiction & Dominion Over the Territories of the Said Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia & make our Submifsion to His Said Majesty in as ample a Manner as wee have formerly done to the Most Christian King.

That the Indians shall nott molest any of His Majesty’s Subjects or their Dependants in their Settlements already made or Lawfully to be made or in their carrying on Their Trade or Other Affaires within the Said Province.

That If there Happens any robbery or outrage Committed by any of Our Indians the Tribe or Tribes they belong to Shall Cause Satisfaction to be made to ye partys Injur’d.

That the Indians Shall nott help to convey away any Soldiers belonging to His Majesty’s Forts butt on the Contrary Shall bring back any Soldier they Shall find Endeavouring to run away.

That in Case of any Mifsunderstanding Quarrell or Injury between the English & the Indians no Private revenge Shall be taken, butt Application Shall be made for redrefs According to His Majestys Laws.

That if any English Prisoners amongst any of our aforesaid Tribes wee faithfully promifs that the said Prinsoners shall be releas’d & Carefully Conducted & Deliver’d up to this Governmenmt, or that of New England.

That in Testimony of our Sincerity wee have for our Selves & in behalf of Our Said Indian Tribes Confirmes to what was Stipulated by our Delegates att Boston as aforesaid this day Solemnly Confirm’d & ratified each & ratified each & every One of the aforegoing Articles which Shall be Punctually observ’d & duly perform’d by Each & all of us the Said Indians.

IIn Wittnefs Whereof wee have before the [?] [?] John Doucett & Councill for this His Majesty Said Province & the Deputies of the ffrench Inhabitants of Sd Province hereunto Sett our Hands & Seals att Annapolis Royall this 4th Day of June 1726 & in the Twelveth Year of His Majestys Reign.

Chief of

[?] Nipimoit

Nicholas X St. Johns

Chief of

[?] Paul Tecumart X one of ye

Cape Sables

Joseph Ounaginitish X of


Marquis X of St. Johns

Obina X

Piere X Benoit

Denis X

Puize X Paul

Louis X

Francois X

St Castine X

Jofeph X St Obin

Andre X

Simon X

Joseph X

Joseph [totem

Joseph [totem]

Francois X

Francois X

Francois X

Michel X

Joseph [totem]

Piere Benoit X

Charles X

Andre X

Chief of

Jean Baptist [totem] Pon


Jean [totem] Baptist

Etiene fils de Baptist Pon


Piere X Martine Chief


Jirom X of Attanas Chief


Joseph Martine X

Chief of

Piere X Armquarett


Chief of

Philip X Eargomot


Michel [tm] Eargamet

Mark [tm] Antoine

Joseph [totem le Grand

Claud X Grand Glode

Rene X Grand Glode

Francois X Grand Glode


Jean Baptist X Chief

Cape Sables

Matthew X Muse

Joseph X Miductuk


Jacque X Pemeriot


Petit Jermain X

Piere Pisnett X

Antoin X Nimquarett


Lewis X Pemeroit


Etien X Chegau

Reny X Nectabau

Piere X Nimcharett

of ye River Indians

Baptist X Tomus Chief

of Annapolis Royall

Jean X Pisnett

Francois X Jermain


Francois X Xavier


Noel X Shomitt


Piere X Nimcharett

Piere X Chegau

Francois X Chickarett

Antoine X Tecumart

Philip X Tecumart

Bernard X St aboqmadin

Tomas X Outine

Chief of ye Eastern

Antoine X Egigish


Jean X Quaret

Simon X Nelanoit

Jacque X Denis

Francois X Spugonoit

Jacque X Nughquit

Claud X Begamonit

Jacque Penall

Claud X Migaton

Simon X Spugonoit

Louis X Lavoinst

Jean X Pinet

from ye Cape

Joseph X Chigaguisht


Jacque X Chegan


Otho Hamilton

Richard Bull

James Ershine

Geoe Baker

Hugh Campbell

Robert Wroth
Eras: T. Philipps

[Produced by Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nation Chiefs Secretariat 1999]


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This excerpt from the Mi’kmaq Resource Guide 2000 was made possible through the collaboration of the Union of Nova Scotia Indians, The Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq, and the Native Council of Nova Scotia. The Second Edition – 2000 was made possible through the Tripartite Education Committee and was funded by the Nova Scotia Department of Education and Aboriginal Affairs, Mi’kmaw Kina’matnewey, and Canadian Heritage and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.

Project Co-ordinators were Tim Bernard, of the Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq, Rosalie Francis of the Union of Nova Scotia Indians, and Spencer Wilmot of the Native Council of Nova Scotia. Contributors included Bernie Francis – Mi’kmaq translation, Kristie Gehue, Julie Martin, Clayton Paul – research, and Mary Martha Sylliboy of Eastern Woodland Publishing. P.O. Box 1590, Truro, N.S. Canada, B2N 5V3, Telephone 902-895-2038.