Mi’kmaw Timeline

956 – Norsemen made first contact with the Indians of Newfoundland

1398 – Henry St. Clair, a Scotsman, is believed to have landed in Guysborough Harbour and travelled to Pictou and Stellarton

1492 – Christopher Columbus landed in North America and claimed that he had discovered the New World

1497 – Acadia and Newfoundland visited by John Cabot, merchant and explorer under the orders of Henry VII of England. Cabot took formal possession of the land in the name of King Henry VII

1500 – Garpar Corte Real, a slave trader, captured several natives; some were believed to be Mi’kmaq. Corte Real’s ship was lost at sea, although two of his ships returned to Portugal safely

1510 – Mi’kmaw Grand Chief Membertou was born

1534 – Jacques Cartier sailed with two ships to North America under the orders of King Francis I. Cartier traded furs with the Mi’kmaq and this is the first recorded incident of trade with Europeans

1537 – Bull Sic Dilexit, issued by Paul III in 1537 stated that Indians should not be deprived of their liberty property, or in any way be enslaved

1546 – The Descelieers Mappemonde showed the discovered areas in North America as well as the native fauna and Native people

1578 – Marquis de la Roche-Mesgoues received a commission from King Henri IV authorizing him to colonize North America

1598 – Marquis de la Roche-Mesgoues built a colony on Sable Island using 40 convicts to supply labour

1603 – Samuel de Champlain travelled to North America on an exploration voyage

1603 – Pierrede Giva, Sieur de Monts, Governor of Acadia, received a royal commission to colonize Acadia

1604 – The first Jesuit missionary Abbè Jessè Flèchè arrived at Port Royal

1606 – Marc Lescarbot’s first contact with the Mi’kmaq. He wrote the earliest detailed records of Mi’kmaw life

1607 – French colonists evacuate Port Royal. While the French were gone, Grand Chief Membertou took responsibility for the encampment until the return of the French in 1610

1610 – The Concordat with the Vatican was signed. It affirmed the Mi’kmaq right to choose Catholicism, Mi’kmaq tradition, or both. Mi’kmaw Grand Captain Pesamoet spent a year living in France and he realized that a large number of French people would be settling in Acadia. It was necessary therefore, to form good relations with them. This meant accepting and protecting the Catholic religion

1610 – Chief Membertou was the first North American native to be baptized. Membertou, along with 21 members of his family were baptized by Abbè Jessè Flèchè as a sign of alliance and friendship

1621 – Sir William Alexander obtained a grant from the British King James I for all of Acadia. The territory that the Mi’kmaq called home was given the name “Nova Scotia”

1628 – St. Anne’s Chapel was established by Vimont and Vieux Point. St. Anne was adopted by the Mi’kmaq as their patron saint

1632 – Capucins established a school at LaHave for Mi’kmaw children

1639 – Pope Urban VIII issued a statement that the Indians should not be enslaved or deprived of their liberty or property

1676 – Father Chrestien Le Clercq began his work in Gaspasia. He was the first to use hieroglyphic characters to teach Mi’kmaq

1713 – The “Submission and Agreement of the Eastern Indians” including those of the St. John River and eastward was signed at Portsmouth

1716 – Gaulin established a mission at Antigonish in order to induce the Mi’kmaq to settle and farm the land

1717 – A Church was approved for the Mi’kmaq of Anitgonish

1722 – The Indian War began in 1722 and lasted until 1726. Gaulin established a mission at Bras d”Or Lake. Phillips banned the sale of arms and ammunition to the Indians

1725 – Treaty with the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet signed in Boston. It was the first of several treaties to be signed between the British and the Mi’kmaq to establish a peaceful alliance

1726 – The 1725 Treaty was ratified and confirmed by all the Mi’kmaw tribes in Nova Scotia during talks at Port Royal

1735 – Pierre Maillard arrived at Louisbourg and began work on Mi’kmaw grammar

1744 – Mascarene requested that Gorham’s Rangers keep the Mi’kmaq under control

1749 – Edward Cornwallis was appointed Governor of Nova Scotia. He was followed by over 2000 settlers who founded the settlement of Halifax

1749 – Treaty signed with the Indians at Chebucto and Saint John renewing the Treaty of 1725

1749 – In the continuing campaign in Chignecto, Cornwallis’s instructions include a reward of ten guineas for the scalps of Mi’kmaw men, women, and children. The Lords of Trade disagreed with this “extermination” policy. The Mi’kmaw military began to decline after they lost the support of the French.

1752 – Treaty between Peregrine Thomas Hopson, Governor of the Province of Nova Scotia and Jean Baptiste Cope, Chief Sachem of the Mi’kmaq, was signed in Halifax. Grand chief Cope was assured that Britain intended to make peace, provide trading posts, and protect the land and the way of life of the Mi’kmaw people. This treaty designated October 1st as the date on which the Mi’kmaq would receive gifts from the British to “renew their friendship and submissions”.

1753 – Thomas Wood started work on a Mi’kmaw grammar dictionary and bible

1753 – Up until 1756, Lawrence issued a proclamation ordering hostilities to be committed on the Mi’kmaq

1755 – A Mi’kmaw by the name of Paul Laurent requested hunting lands for the Mi’kmaw people

1758 – Louisbourg fell to the British for the last time – a vital turning point in Mi’kmaw resistance to the British presence

1758 – Lawrence issued a proclamation inviting immigrants to Nova Scotia and promising them land grants with no rents for 10 years

1760-61 – Mi’kmaw Chiefs discussed terms of peace with the British

1761 – Treaty of Peace and Friendship, signed on Governor Belcher’s farm. The “Burying of the Hatchet Ceremony” celebrated the successful conclusion of the treaties

1761 – Royal Instructions were issued to Governors, instructing them to enter into treaties with the various tribes; the said treaties were to be honoured and enforced without exception

1762 – Belcher’s Proclamation stated that His Majesty was determined to maintain the just rights of the Indians to all lands reserved or claimed by them

1763 – The Royal Proclamation brought the management of Indian Affairs under central direction. It was an attempt to prevent the illegal seizure of native lands by the incoming British settlers

1764 – A plan for future management of Indian affairs was created

1776 – Treaty signed between Americans and delegates of St. John’s and Mi’kmaw tribes. This treaty, signed at Watertown, stated that the Mi’kmaw Nation and America would help one another against any enemy. Most of the Mi’kmaq did not agree with this arrangement; therefore this treaty did not last.

1779 – The final treaty between the Mi’kmaq and the British was signed. The Mi’kmaq ceased to be a military threat

1782 – Loyalist refugees from New York fled to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The Mi’kmaw population was now outnumbered and no longer considered to be a threat to the British. They were placed on reservations

1783 – The Colonial Government of Nova Scotia granted licenses of occupations to several Mi’kmaw Bands which were merely confirmation of the existence of settlements already established

1786 – Charles Morris was commissioned to carry out an extensive survey of lands assigned to the Mi’kmaq

1789 – Schools for Mi’kmaw children were started

1794 – The Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain was signed. The Mi’kmaw people were allowed to cross the international boundary without any hindrance

1800 – A committee was formed to study the plight of the Mi’kmaq

1801 – The Nova Scotia government allotted ten Indian reserves

1804 – Jean Mandè Sigognè compiled a book of Mi’kmaq translations

1807 – Lieutenant Governor John Wentworth ordered a census be taken of the Mi’kmaw population

1820 – Charles Morris was ordered to submit a plan for tracts of land which were to be given to Mi’kmaw Indians

1822 – The Mi’kmaq of St. George’s Bay, Newfoundland, built their own schooner

1840 – Silas T. Rand, a Baptist Minister, compiled a Mi’kmaw dictionary

1841 – Grand Chief John Denny Jr. was born. Denny was to become the last Mi’kmaw Grand Chief to acquire his title by succeeding his father

1848 – Abraham Gesner, the Indian Commissioner, settled 14 families at Shubenacadie 1850 – An Act for Lower Canada defined the term “Indian” and established the criteria for eligibility for Indian status

1851 – The criteria for Indian status in the 1850 Act was revised to state that Indian ancestry would be through the male line. If a native woman married a non-native, her child could not claim Indian status.

1855 – The Nova Scotia government enacted legislation for the purpose of taking title to all lands reserved for the exclusive use of Indians and to hold it in trust for them

1859 – An Act was passed which allowed squatters to buy the land on which they were trespassing. This allowed settlers to obtain land set aside for the Mi’kmaq

1866 – Samuel P. Fairbanks, Commissioner of Crown Lands and Indian Affairs, prepared a schedule of lands to be set apart for the Mi’kmaq

1868 – The Indian Act was created

1876 – The Indian Act establishes the Department of Indian Affairs. In order to become a Canadian citizen, natives had to relinquish their Indian status

1894 – Father Pacifique translated prayers into Mi’kmaq

1900 – The Mi’kmaw flag was first raised in Restigouche, Quebec, on October 4, and in Halifax in 1901

1914 – Over 150 Mi’kmaw men signed up during World War I

1918 – Gabriel J. Sylliboy became the first elected Grand Chief at a ceremony in Chapel Island

1929 – Rex v. Sylliboy became an important precedent setting case in which the Treaty of 1752 held not to give the Mi’kmaq of Cape Breton Island immunity from the Lands and Forests Act. This was overruled in 1985 by the R. v. Simon case

1930 – The Residential School in Shubenacadie opened. It closed in 1967. It was used as a means of speeding up the process of assimilation

1939 – Over 250 Mi’kmaq signed up during World War II

1942 – The Indian Affairs Branch introduced centralization programs in Nova Scotia. The aim of centralization was to relocate the Mi’kmaq to reserves located at Eskasoni and Shubenacadie

1945 – The Veterans Land Act grant was used to buy houses for veterans returning from World War II

1950 – Over 60 Mi’kmaq enlisted for service in Korea

1951 – Revisions were made to the Indian Act which removed the ban against performing traditional ceremonies as well as the clause forbidding Indians from entering public bars

1956 – The Canadian Government granted citizenship to Indians

1958 – Eight of eleven Mi’kmaw bands in Nova Scotia took control of their own affairs, including the management of band funds

1960 – The Canadian Government permitted Indians to vote in federal and provincial elections without any loss of their status under the Indian Act

1969 – The Union of Nova Scotia Indians was formed

1969 – Trudeau introduced the “White Paper Policy” which was an attempt to make native people adopt the values and culture of Canadians of European descent. It would eliminate special status for native people and repeal the Indian Act

1969 – The Citizen Plus, also known as the “Red Paper” was presented to Prime Minister Trudeau. It was a response by the Indian Chiefs of Alberta rejecting the provisions of the White Paper

1970 – The federal government began funding native groups and associations to conduct research into treaties and Indian rights

1971 – The White Paper Policy was withdrawn

1972 – The Nova Scotia Native Women’s Association was formed

1973 – The Acadia Band became the twelfth band in Nova Scotia

1974 – The Micmac Association of Cultural Studies initiated a new writing system for Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq

1975 – The Native Council of Nova Scotia was formed by the Mi’kmaq and MAètis

1977 – The Mi’kmaw Grand Council and UNSI presented their Aboriginal Rights position paper to the Minister of Indian Affairs

1980 – The Francis/Smith writing system became the official writing system for the Mi’kmaw language in Nova Scotia

1981 – The Constitution Act recognized existing Aboriginal and treaty rights

1982 – Treaty and Aboriginal rights were recognized under Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. In 1995 the Indian Affairs Minister issued department policy which recognized inherent right to self-government

1983 – Mi’kmaw petroglyphs were found in Bedford, Nova Scotia

1985 – James Matthew Simon vs. The Queens, a Supreme Court ruling held that the 1752 treaty was still valid and enforceable

1985 – Mi’kmaq Family & Children’s Services was established to serve the native communities of Nova Scotia

1985 – Bill C-31 went into effect. This bill permitted the reinstallment of 8,000 individuals to Indian status

1986 – The Grand Chief of the Mi’kmaq announced that October 1st would be known as “Treaty Day” to commemorate the relationship between the Mi’kmaq and Her Majesty

1986 – The Royal Commission on the Donald Marshall Jr. prosecution was established by the Executive Council of Nova Scotia by Order in Council on October 28th, 1986

1986 – The Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq was established by the band councils of six mainland Nova Scotia First Nations

1987 – Meech Lake Accord recognized Quebec as a “distinct society”, a right denied to First Nations people

1989 – The Dalhousie Law School Programme for Indigenous Blacks and Mi’kmaq was established

1990 – First publication of the Micmac Nation News which would later become the Micmac-Maliseet Nations News

1990 – The Marshall Inquiry Report highlighted the inadequacies of the Nova Scotia justice system in regard to the Mi’kmaq

1991 – The Micmac Heritage Gallery opened its doors at Halifax

1992 – The Mi’kmaw Cultural Alliance was established at Hants East Rural High School

1993 – A Policing Agreement was signed by the Nova Scotia and federal governments with the Union of Nova Scotia Indians

1994 – The Mi’kmaq of Nova Scotia and Ronald A. Irwin, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development signed an accord which would allow Mi’kmaq jurisdiction over education

1995 – The Canadian Government launches plans for negotiating Aboriginal self-government

1995 – The Minister of Indian Affairs issued department policy which recognized an inherent right to self-government

1996 – The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples’ five volumes based on a five year study were released 1996 – Lee Cremo became the first recipient of the First Nations Category of the East Coast Music Awards

1997 – Mi’kmaq of Nova Scotia, the province of Nova Scotia, and Canada, signed a memorandum of understanding to establish a Tripartite Forum

1997 – Education jurisdiction transferred to the Mi’kmaq of Nova Scotia. It was the first agreement in Canada to transfer jurisdiction for education from the federal government of Canada to First Nations communities

1997 – Delgamuukw v. British Columbia proved the existence of Aboriginal title within Canada. It provides a test for the proof of Aboriginal title and the content of which that entails

1997 – 100th anniversary celebration of St. Anne’s Church on Merigomish Island

1998 – Micmac Native Friendship Centre celebrated its 25th Anniversary

1998 – Eskasoni High Tech High School opens

1998 – Chapel Island opens Mi’kmawey Poteletekewey Kina’matno’kuom for grades primary to eight

1998 – 25th anniversary of the Wally Bernard Memorial Indian Youth Hockey Invitational

1999 – Mi’kmite’lmanej Mi’kmaqi’k: Let Us Remember the Old Mi’kmaq” Photo Exhibit was opened at the Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History in Halifax. The exhibit provided a rare visual record of the late 1920s, early 1930s as seen through the eyes of Frederick Johnson. The show was produced by the Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq and the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology.

1999 – A Memorandum of Association concerning Mi’kmaq heritage was signed. It addresses the treatment of sacred burial sites, access to archaeological and ethnological collections, and the involvement of Mi’kmaq in the management of cultural resources.

1999 – In a 5-2 decision on September 17th, the Supreme COurt of Canada agreed that Donald Marshall Jr. had a treaty right to fish for sustenance and earn a moderate livelihood from the commercial fishery as guaranteed under the treaties of 1760/61 signed between the Mi’kmaq, Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, and British Crown. On November 17th, in denying a motion for a stay, the Supreme COurt issued a more detailed analysis of the commercial aspect of R. v. Marshall.

1999 – In December, the Assembly of Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq Chiefs and MAritimes & Northeast Pipeline officially signed an agreement dealing with enrironmental studies, monitoring and socio-economic opportunities as they relate to the M&NP.

1999 – June marked the formation of Atlantic Canada’s First Nation Help Desk, a website designed to assist students & teachers in developing high-tech support ofr First Nation schools (www.firstnationhelp.com).

1999 – In December, Eskasoni’s Seymour Doucette represented both Canada and the Mi’kmaq, placing 12th at the World Bench Press Championship in Vaasa, Finland, pressing 501 lbs.

2000 – Potlotek announces opening of expanded water treatment plant & water tower, IBM school vista, C@P site, Potlotek Canoe Campany, Mi’kmawey Etli Mawa’tasik (Resource Centre), and the formation of the Potlotek School Board this year.

2000 – Glooscap (formerly Horton) Band opens new facility, Glooscap’s Healing Centre, enabling delivery of more programs & activities in the health field to the community.

2000 – In August the Gaspé Chiefs (Listuguk, Gesgapegiag & Gespeg) sign historical accord which will see them pool resources to work on issues of common interest.

2000 – Eskasoni artist Eugene Denny’s artwork is chosen as the design for the reverse side of the Governor General’s Academic MEdal. His artwork, the East Circle, represents the rising sun, symbol of dawn, and the Eagle, the gatekeeper of the East.

2000 – An historic plaque ceremony “Mi’kmaq Cultural Landscape at Kejimkujik” was held at Kejimkujik National Park on October 1st, in recognition of Mi’kmaq presence there since time immemorial.

2000 – Sword of Peace presented to Mi’kmaq, a salute of peace & friendship from descendants of Prince Henry sinclair who had arrived on the shore of Mi’kma’ki in 1398. The sword is housed at the Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq.

2000 – Dalhousie University’s Transitional Year Program celebrates its 30th anniversary. The Program is designed to assist mature Mi’kmaq & African-Canadian students prepare for university.

2000 – The COnfederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq is awarded the Federation of Nova Scotia Heritage Outstanding Exhibit Award for “Let Us Remember the Old Mi’kmaq”.

2000 – Shubenacadie’s Noel Knockwood became the first Mi’kmaq to serve as Sergeant-at-Arms for the Nation’s oldest House of Assembly in Nova Scotia.

2000 – Pictou Landing Band became certified by Smartwood as a well-managed source of wood products whose forest management practices adhere to strict environmental & socioeconomic standards in accordance with the principles & criteria of the Forest Stewardship Council.

2000 – Listuguj Band builds a new Fisheries Centre to house offices, boat storage & repair, laboratories, and a warehouse.

2000 – Mi’kmaw Lodge Treatment Centre in eskasoni, Nova Scotia celebrates its 15th anniversary.

2000 – Gelulg Glusuaqan, Gisiteget Agnutmugsi’gw, the New Testament in Mi’kmaq & English, is released by the Canadian Bible Society.

2001 – Archaeologists find six new Paleo-Indian artifacts at Mi’kmawey Debert site: 5 flakes that had been created by toolmakers, and 1 scraper which would have been used to clean caribou over 11,000 years ago.

2001 – Construction begins of Membertou Market & Gas Bar at the Membertou Business Park, Sydney, Nova Scotia.

2001 – On October 26th, Chief Lawrence Paul and Fisheries Minister Herb Dhaliwal cut the ribbon to officially open Millbrook’s new $1.25 million wharf in Sheet Harbour. It can house up to 10 boats, large and cold freezer storage, and has ice making capability.

2001 – On January 11th, Nova Scotia Premier John Hamm, Chief Lawrence Paul, and Indian Affairs Minister Robert Nault cut the ribbon to officially open the Millbrook Band’s “Power centre” in Truro, Nova Scotia.

2001 – A new RCMP complex is officially opened in Millbrook in October. It is the first on-reserve full-size detachment in Atlantic Canada.

2001 – In November a newly constructed $8 million overpass was opened, allowing Highway 102 travellers on & off access to Millbrook Power Centre. It also connects Millbrook for the first time to the part of its community on the other side of the highway.

2001 – In a ruling handed down on March 8th, the Nova Scotia Provincial Court found 35 Mi’kmaw loggers guilty of cutting logs on Crown land. The case would be appealed in April, 2001.

2001 – On June 8th, the Wagmatcook Culture & Heritage Centre opened its doors with grand opening ceremonies including performances by Aboriginal artists Susan Aglukark, Morning Star, and Joel Denny. The Centre contains a permanent heritage exhibit & display of fine Mi’kmaw artifacts, a grand hall, restaurant, retail craft shop, and classroom/meeting rooms.

2001 – Mi’kmaw filmmaker Catherine Martin of the Millbrook Band wins the Andres Slapinsh Memorial International Award for her film “Spirit Wind” which premiered nationally on Vision TV, March 27th. The award was for Best Indigenous Filmmaker.

2001 – The Mi’kmaq College Institute of Cape Breton University in Sydney, Nova Scotia, celebrates approval of its Integrative Science Program “Toqa’tu’kl Kjijitaqnn” on April 19th. This program, the first of its kind in North America, will give students the opportunity to learn about science from a Mi’kmaw perspective.

2001 – On June 8th, Eskasoni’s Tuma Young, became the first Mi’kmaw speaking lawyer to be called to the Nova Scotia Bar.

2001 – For the first time in the history of the Canada Games, a First Nation will participate in the organization. A $2.3 million fencing facility is constructed in Eel River Bar, New Brunswick.

2001 – Ada Benoit of Conne River, Newfoundland, became the first Aboriginal person to graduate as a nurse-practitioner.

2001 – In January the Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq and provincial & federal governments in the Tripartite Forum issued a joint statement regarding their willingness to work together to resolve outstanding Aboriginal issues including the long-term implementation of the Marshall decision.

2001 – Chief Lawrence Paul is named “Newsmaker of the Year” by the Truro Daily News, Truro, Nova Scotia, who reported that “new found prosperity in the Millbrook First Nation has brought unheardof attention to the small community of 1,200 people near Truro and a new appreciation of their chief of the past 17 years”.

2002 – The Millbrook Band began construction of its $2.9 million Aquaculture Facility at the Power Centre, Truro, N.S.

2002 – Membertou Band gains recognition as the first indigenous government in Canada to receive ISO 901:2000 Certification, the purpose of which is to further enhance their economy based on the pillars of sustainability, conservation, innovation, and success, allowing Membertou to be a credible player in the global market economy.

2002 – Mi’kmaq Association of Cultural Studies (MACS) celebrates its 30th anniversary.

2002 – Nova Scotia Native Women’s Association celebrates its 30th anniversary.

2002 – Technology helps preserve Mi’kmaw language: junior high school students at Riverside Education Centre in Milford, Nova scotia, are learning Mi’kmaq via highspeed broafband connections throguh video conference technology, from a teacher 300 kms. away in Cape Breton.

2002 – Shubenacadie band member, Noel Knockwood, wins National Achievement Award for his work in restoring and rebuilding Aboriginal spirituality in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

2002 – Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq, provincial, and federal governments signed an Umbrella Agreement which reaffirms their long-standing relationship and commitment to work together in good faith to resolve mutual concern on June 7th. Specifically, the parties will continue to move forward with the existing Mi’kmaq-Nova Scotia-Canada Tripartite Forum, as well as engage in a broad negotiations process to consider issues of asserted Aboriginal rights (including title) and treaty rights. The parties have agreed to establish a consultation process.

2002 – Grand opening of the $3.6 million state-of -the art scientific research facility, the Unama’ki Institute of Natural Resources, on September 6th, at Eskasoni, N.S. It features a large board room,marine exhibit, trainig & laboratoy space, and classrooms and offices for administration of UINR & staff of the Eskasoni Fish & wildlife Commission.

2002 – On October 1st,during Treaty Day celebrations at Province House in Halifax, Nova scotia, representatives from the Mi’kmaq, Province & Canada Tripartite Forum signed a resolution ratifying the SMith-Francis Orthography as the official Mi’kmaw writing system for Nova Scotia, and encouring the promotion and utilization of the Mi’kmaw language in public areas and on signage.

2002 – Mi’kmaw author and long time advocate for Mi’kmaw human rights, Daniel Paul, was honoured by the province with an Order of Nova Scotia Medal on October 2 – the first time the award has been given to a Mi’kmaw.

2002 – Launch of new book, “Tracking Dr. Lonecloud: Showman to Legend Keeper”


This excerpt from the Mi’kmaw Resource Guide 2007 was made possible through the collaboration of the Union of Nova Scotia Indians, The Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq, and the Native Council of Nova Scotia. The Fourth Edition – 2007 was made possible through the Tripartite Education Committee and was funded by the Nova Scotia Department of Education and Aboriginal Affairs, Mi’kmaw Kina’matnewey, and Canadian Heritage and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.

Project Coordinators were Tim Bernard, of the Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq, Rosalie Francis of the Union of Nova Scotia Indians, and Spencer Wilmot of the Native Council of Nova Scotia. Contributors included Bernie Francis – Mi’kmaq translation, Kristie Gehue, Julie Martin, Clayton Paul – research, and Mary Martha Sylliboy, © Eastern Woodland Publishing. P.O. Box 1590, Truro, N.S. Canada, B2N 5V3, Telephone 902-895-2038.