Treaties of 1760 – 1761

Whereas Articles of Submission and Agreement were made and concluded at Boston in New England in the Year of Our Lord 1725 by Sauguaaram alias Loron Arexus Xavier and Meganumbe, Delegates from the Tribes of Penobscott Naridgwalk St. Johns and other tribes inhabiting His Majesty’s Territories of Nova Scotia and New England, in manner and form following Vizn.

Articles of Submission and Agreement at Boston in New England by Sauguaaram als Loron Arexus Francois Xavier and Meganumbe Delegates from the Tribes of Penobscot Naridgwalk St. Johns Cape Sable and other Tribes of the Indians inhabiting within His Majesty’s Territories of Nova Scotia and New England.

Whereas His Majesty King George by the Concession of the most Christian King made at the Treaty of Utrecht is become the Rightfull possessor of the Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie according to its ancient Boundaries We the said Saugaaram als Loron Arexus Francois Xavier and Megamumbe Delegates from the said Tribes of Penobscot Naridgwalk St. Johns, Cape Sables and other Tribes inhabiting within His Majesty’s said Territories of Nova Scotia or Accadie and New England So in the Name and behalf of the said Tribes we represent acknowledge his Said Majesty King Georges Jurisdiction and Dominion over the Territories of said Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie and make our Submission to his Said Majesty in as ample a manner as We have formerly done to the Most Christian King.

And we further promise in behalf of the said Tribes we represent that the Indians shall not molest any of His Majesty’s Subjects or their Dependants in their Settlements already or lawfully to be made or in their carrying on their Trade and other affairs within said Province.

That if there happens any Robbery, or outrage Committed by any of the Indians the Tribe or Tribes they belong to shall cause Satisfaction and Restitution to be made to the Parties injured.

That the Indians shall not help to convey away any Soldiers belonging to His Majesty’s Forts, but on the contrary shall bring back any soldier they find endeavouring to run away.

That, in case of any misunderstanding Quarrel or Injury between the English and the Indians no private Revenge shall be taken but application shall be made for Redress according to his Majesty’s laws.

That is the Indians have made any Prisoners belonging to the Government of Nova Scotia or Accadie during the course of the War they shall be released at or before the Ratification of the Treaty.

That this Treaty shall be Ratified at Annapolis Royal.

Dated at the Council Chamber at Boston in New England this fifteenth day of December An Dom, one thousand Seven hundred and twenty five Annog R.R. Georgy Mag Britan and Duodecimo.

Which Articles of Submission and Agreement were renewed and confirmed at Halifax in Nova Scotia in the Year of Our Lord 1749 by Joannes Pedousaghugh Chief of the Tribe of Chignecto Indians and Francois Aroudourvish, Simon Sactarvino and Jean Baptiste Maddouanhook, Deputies from the Chiefs of the St. Johns Indians in manner and form following Vizn.

I Johannes Pedoudaghugh Chief of the Tribe of Chignecto Indians for myself and in behalf of my Tribe my Heirs and their heirs for ever and We Francois Aroudorvish, Simon Sactarvino and Jean Baptiste Maddouanhook Deputies from the Chiefs of the St. Johns Indians and invested by them with full powers for that purpose Do in the most solemn manner renew the above Articles of Agreement and Submission and every Article thereof with His Excellency Edward Cornwallis Esq. Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over His Majestys Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie Vice admiral of the Same Colonel in His Majestys Service and one of his bed Chamber in Witness whereof I the said Johannes Pedousaghugh have Subscribed this Treaty and affixed by Seal and We the said Francois Aroudorvisah Simon Sactarvino and Jean Baptiste Maddouanhook in behalf of the Chiefs of the Indian Tribes we Represent have Subscribed and affixed our Seals t the Same and engage that the said Chiefs shall Ratify this Treaty at St. Johns. Done in Chibucto Harbour the fifteenth of August One Thousand Seven hundred and forty-nine.

In Presence of P. Hopson, Mascarence, Robt ellison, Iam T. mercer, Chas. Lawrence, Edn How, Edm. Gorham, Benj. Green, John Salusbury, Hugh Davidson, William Steele (Members of the Council for Nova Scotia)

      Johannes Pedousaghsigh
      Francois Arodorvish
      Simon Sactarvino
      Jean Bap.t Maddouanhook

And the same was according Ratified at St. Johns in manner and form following Vizn.

The Articles of Peace on the other Side Concluded at Chibucto to the fifteenth of August One Thousand Seven hundred and forty nine with His Excellency Edward Cornwallis Esq.r Cap.t Gen. Gov.r & Commander in Chief of His Majesty’s Province of Nova scotia or Accadie and Signed by our Deputies having been communicated to Us by Edward How esq.r One of His Majestys Council for Said province, and faithfully Interpreted to Us by Madam DeBelliste inhabitant of this River nominated by Us for that purpose We the Chiefs and Captains of the River St. John and places adjacent do for ourselves and our different tribes Confirm and Ratify the same to all Intents and purposes.

Given under our Hands at the River St. Johns the fourth day of September One Thousand Seven hundred and forty nine n presence of the under written Witnesses

Michell / Narragonis chief
Nicola / Neguin Capt
Francois / De Xavier Archibano Marqillie
Pierre / Alexander Margillie
Augustin / Meyacvet, Maitre Chief deRiv St. Jean
Francois / Mayanyarvet, Maitre Lerure D.
Rene / Neguin
Neptune / Pierre Paul Chief Pasmequody
Luafin / Papanlouet
Francois / Germain Capt
Pierre / Bennoit Capt
Francois / Drino Capt
Rene / file D’ambroise Capt

Ed.d Hon. One of His Majesty’s Council

      nath Dennal
      John Beare
      Joseph Winniett
      John Wonn
      Rob McKoun
      Matt Winniett
      John Phillipps

And Whereas the said Articles of Submission and Agreement, so made and concluded, renewed, confirmed and ratified have notwithstanding been since violated contrary to the good Faith therein engaged for the constant and strict Observation and performance thereof and to the Allegiance due from the said Tribes to His Majesty Our Sovereign Lord King George We Mitchel Neptune Chief of the tribe of Indians of Passamaquody, and Ballomy Gloade Captain in the Tribe of Indians of St. John’s River Delegates from the said Tribes and by them fully authorised and empowered to make and conclude with His Excellency Chas Lawrence Esq.r His Majesty’s Captain General and Governor in Chief of the Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie in behalf of His Majestys Government of the Said Province a Treaty for the renewal and future firm Establishment of Peace and Amity between the said Tribes of Passamaquody and St. Johns River Indians and His Majesty’s other subjects and to renew the Acknowledgement of the Allegiance of the said Tribes and their engagements to a perfect and constant Submission and Obedience to His Majesty King George the Second his Heirs and Successors Do accordingly in the name and behalf of the said Tribes of Passamaquody and St. Johns herby renew and Confirm the aforesaid Articles of Submission and Agreement, and every part thereof and do so solemnly promise and engage that the same shall for ever hereafter be strictly observed and performed.

And We the said Mitchel Neptune and Ballomy Glode, for ourselves and in the name and behalf of the said Tribes of Passamaquody and St. Johns Indians Do respectively further promise and engage that no person or persons belonging to the said Tribes shall at any time hereafter aid or Assist any of the Enemies of His most Sacred Majesty King George the Second or of his Heirs and successors nor shall hold any Correspondence or Commerce with any such His Majestys Enemies in any way or manner whatsoever and that, for the more effectually preventing any such Correspondence and Commerce with any of His Majestys Enemies the said Tribes shall at all times hereafter Trafic and barter and exchange Commodities with the Managers of such Truckhouses as shall be established for that purpose by his Majesty’s Governors of this Province at Fort Frederick or elsewhere within the Said Province and at no other place without permission from his Majestys Geovernment of the said Province. And We do in like manner further promise and engage that for the more effectually securing and due performance of this Treaty and every part thereof a certain Number, which shall not be less than Three from each of the aforesaid tribes, shall from and after the ratification hereof constantly reside in Fort Frederick at St. Johns or at such other place or places within the Province as shall and at no other place without permission from His Majestys Government of the said Province. And We do in the manner further promise and engage that for the more effectually securing and due performance of this Treaty and every part thereof a certain Number, which shall not be less than Three from each of the aforesaid tribes, shall from and after the Ratification hereof constantly reside in Fort Frederick at St. Johns or at such other place or places within the Province as shall be appointed for that purpose by His Majestys Governors of the said Province as Hostages, which Hostages shall be exchanged for a like Number of others or of the said Tribes when requested.

And We do further promise and engage that this Treaty and every part therof shall be ratified by the Chiefs and Captains and other principal persons of the said Tribes at Fort Frederick aforesaid on or before the 20th May next.

In Faith and Testimony whereof We have Signed these Presents and caused the Seal of the Province to be hereunto affixed, and the said Michel Neptune and Ballomy Glode have hereunto put their Marks and Seals in the Council Chamber at Halifax in Nova Scotia the Twenty third Day of February in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred and sixty and in the Thirty third Year of His Majesty’s Reign.

A true Copy.

By His Excell.ys Comm
Rich.d Bulkeley, Sec.y

 

 


Treaties of 1760-1761

 

Treaty of Peace and Friendship concluded by [His Excellency Charles Lawrence] Esq. Govr and Comr. in Chief in and over his Majesty’s Province of Nova Scotia or Accadia with Paul Laurent chief of the LaHave tribe of Indians at Halifax in the Province of N.S. or Acadia.

I, Paul Laurent do for myself and the tribe of the LaHave Indians of which I am Chief do acknowledge the jurisdiction and Dominion of His Majesty George the Second over the Territories of Nova Scotia or Accadia and we do make submission to His Majesty in the most perfect, ample and solemn manner.

And I do promise for myself and my tribe that I nor they shall not molest any of His Majesty’s subjects or their dependents, in their settlements already made or to be hereafter made or in carrying on their Commerce or in any thing whatever within the Province of His said Majesty in any thing whatever within the Province of His said Majesty or elsewhere and if any insult, robbery or outrage shall happen to be committed by any of my tribe satisfaction and restitution shall be made to the person or persons injured.

That neither I nor any of my tribe shall in any manner entice any of his said Majesty’s troops or soldiers to desert, nor in any manner assit in conveying them away but on the contrary will do our utmost endeavours to bring them back to the Company, Regiment, Fort or Garrison to which they shall belong.

That if any Quarrel or Misunderstanding shall happen between myself and the English or between them and any of my tribe, neither I, nor they shall take any private satisfaction or Revenge, but we will apply for redress according to the Laws established in His said Majesty’s Dominions.

That all English prisoners made by myself or my tribe shall be sett at Liberty and that we will use our utmost endeavours to prevail on the other tribes to do the same, if any prisoners shall happen to be in their hands.

And I do further promise for myself and my tribe that we will not either directly nor indirectly assist any of the enemies of His most sacred Majesty King George the Second, his heirs or Successors, nor hold any manner of Commerce traffick nor intercourse with them, but on the contrary will as much as may be in our power discover and make known to His Majesty’s Governor, any ill designs which may be formed or contrived against His Majesty’s subjects. And I do further engage that we will not traffick, barter or Exchange any Commodities in any manner but with such persons or the managers of such Truck houses as shall be appointed or Established by His Majesty’s Governor at Lunenbourg or Elsewhere in Nova Scotia or Accadia.

And for the more effectual security of the due performance of this Treaty and every part thereof I do promise and Engage that a certain number of persons of my tribe which shall not be less in number than two prisoners shall on or before September next reside as Hostages at Lunenburg or at such other place or places in this Province of Nova Scotia or Accadia as shall be appointed for that purpose by His Majesty’s Governor of said Province which Hostages shall be exchanged for a like number of my tribe when requested.

And all these foregoing articles and every one of them made with His Excellency C.L., His Majesty’s Governor I do promise for myself and on of sd part – behalf of my tribe that we will most strictly keep and observe in the most solemn manner.

In witness whereof I have hereunto putt my mark and seal at Halifax in Nova Scotia this day of March one thousand & c.

Paul Laurent

I do accept and agree to all the articles of the forgoing treaty in Faith and Testimony whereof I have signed these present I have caused my seal to be hereunto affixed this day of march in the 33 year of His Majesty’s Reign and in the year of Our lord – 1760.

Chas Lawrence

The above Treaty was signed 15 days after the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy signed a similar worded Treaty.

Documented adhesions to this treaty were signed by the Mi’kmaq of Richibucto – March 10, 1760, Mouscadaboet – March 10, 1760, Shediac – June 25, 1761, Pokemouche – June 25, 1761, Cape Breton – June 25, 1761, Miramichi – June 25, 1761, La Heve – November 9, 1761.

In the Executive Council minutes there are also references to treaties signed with other communities though no copy of the Treaty has been found. These communities are: Chignecto – July 8, 1761 and Pictou – October 12, 1761.

[Both items produced by the Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nation Chiefs Secretariat 1999].

 

This excerpt from the Mi’kmaq Resource Guide 2000 was made possible through the collaboration of the Union of Nova Scotia Indians, The Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq, and the Native Council of Nova Scotia. The Second Edition – 2000 was made possible through the Tripartite Education Committee and was funded by the Nova Scotia Department of Education and Aboriginal Affairs, Mi’kmaw Kina’matnewey, and Canadian Heritage and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.

Project Co-ordinators were Tim Bernard, of the Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq, Rosalie Francis of the Union of Nova Scotia Indians, and Spencer Wilmot of the Native Council of Nova Scotia. Contributors included Bernie Francis – Mi’kmaq translation, Kristie Gehue, Julie Martin, Clayton Paul – research, and Mary Martha Sylliboy of Eastern Woodland Publishing. P.O. Box 1590, Truro, N.S. Canada, B2N 5V3, Telephone 902-895-2038.