Mi’kmaq in St. Pierre & Miquelon

Mi’kmaq in the Parish Registers of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon,  1763-1848.

From Miawpukek Mi’kamaway Mawi’omi Land Claim … Section 5.3.3 (1996) By Charles A. Martijn

It would appear from this account that the Mi’kmaq of Cape Breton Island, just like the Europeans, were in the habit of crossing over to Newfoundland to exploit its marine food resources. The distances were not comparable, but the objective was the same. One wonders where Alfonce obtained his information, for he himself does not seem to have been personally acquainted with the south coast of Newfoundland. It could only have come from seamen or merchants whom he met at St. John’s Harbour in 1542. They may have been to the general area south-east from there, between Cape Race and St. Pierre & Miquelon, and witnessed or heard about native conflicts, and perhaps had their own skirmishes with the fierce Mi’kmaq.

Due to the seasonal nature of the fishing industry, actual settlement did not take place on St. Pierre and Miquelon until the beginning of the 17th century, and even then was restricted to a few French households. In 1670, only four sedentary families were reported (Guyotjeannin 1986:33). Not until 1694 was the archipelago placed in charge of a commandant under the authority of the French governor of Placentia.

Thus, given the seasonal aspect of the European presence on the St. Pierre and Miquelon Islands, which generated few administrative documents or exploration accounts for more than 150 years, it is not surprising that, until the beginning of the 18th century, there was a scarcity of information about local contacts with native groups.

The first written mention of a Mi’kmaw presence on the Islands dates to November of 1706, as reported by the governor of Placentia, Phillipe Pastour de Costebelle (Martijn and Lebailly n.d.). About 20 Mi’kmaw families had crossed over to St. Pierre from Cape Breton Island and been given provisions and munitions. Other groups had preceeded them to Placentia the previous year, where their leaders declared that they wanted to allow moose and other animals a chance to repopulate the region which they had left. It is clear that they had come of their own volition and not at the specific request of the French. However, the government authorities welcomed their arrival and came to an agreement with them whereby the adult men joined in the war against the British established on the Avalon Peninsula, and regions further north. Until at least 1708, these Mi’kmaw families seem to have used the islands as part of a network of seasonal base camps which covered a specific area of southern Newfoundland, enabling them both to hunt and trap furs, and to attack the English settlements. They even brought back 20 to 25 English prisoners who were ransomed by local French inhabitants.

The Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, accorded St. Pierre and Miquelon to the British. They remained in possession until 1763 when the Treaty of Paris handed the islands back to the French. With one exception, the London administrative and religious records covering this fifty year interim period have yet to be consulted for relevant data.

The earliest Church accounts examined thus far have been unrewarding and do not shed any light on what the local situation was regarding the Mi’kmaq at contact times. Initially, the spiritual needs of the fishermen must have been attended to during the summer seasons by ship chaplains, if any, and no records of their ministry seem to have survived. From 1686 on, an itinerant Franciscan priest, Laurens Molins, looked after people on St. Pierre as well as at Grand Banc and Fortune in Newfoundland. (NAC 1686:273-278). The existence of a “church” or chapel on St. Pierre was first noted in the census of 1687 (Thibodeau 1962:205). Bishop de St. Vallier of Quebec came to serve there. He was also accompanied by two other clerics, Sixte le Tac and Joseph Denis, who established the first Recollet mission at Pacentia (Plaisance) that same year (Hugolin 1911:12-13). The first parish priest of St. Pierre to be known by name was the Recollet Father Antonin (or Antoine), who served there from 1692 until 1707 (Anon.1939:38). The Recollet order was obliged to leave in 1713.

No ecclesiastical records, more precisely Recollet ones, bearing on the question of a local Mi’kmaw presence, have been identified thus far for the period 1689-1713. It is always possible, however, that the Vatican Archives may contain some data (Codignola 1991a:210, 1991b, 1995).

When Governor Gabriel d’Angéac took charge of St. Pierre and Miquelon in 1763, in accordance with the Treaty of Paris, he brought with him two Jesuit priests to minister to the French population, numbering about 1200 people, which accompanied him back from exile. Father Joseph-Pierre de Bonnécamps acted as curate for St. Pierre, while Father François-Paul Ardilliers resided on Miquelon. The parish records contain one baptismal act by Father de Bonnécamps in 1764, involving a Mi’kmaw child named Pierre.

Three years later, in 1767, the Seminary of the Spiritain Fathers (Séminaire du Saint-Esprit) was entrusted with the care of these two parishes, (Anonymous n.d.:50-65). Until 1778, when the islands were once again taken over by the British during the American Revolutionary War, three members of this order, the abbés Julien-François Becquet, Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis, and J.-J. Bouguet signed various acts involving Mi’kmaw baptisms, marriages and burials. During the period 1778-1783, under British rule, the islands appear to have remained unpopulated. The Spiritain Order returned in 1783, when France regained possession of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Fathers Paradis and Jean Longueville initially took over and were later joined by the abbès Jean Baptiste Allain and François Le Jamtel de la Bloutherie. In 1793, the British recaptured St. Pierre and Miquelon, obliging the French population and its clergy to depart once more from the islands. In fact, earlier that same year, several hundred inhabitants, accompanied by two of their clergymen, Allain and Le Jamtel, had emigrated to the Magdalen Islands and to Cape Breton Island rather than submitting to the civil authorities of the French Revolution. The year thereafter, in May 1794, Major Percy F. Thorne, the British commander at St. Pierre received the visit of two Mi’kmaw families, numbering eleven persons, who came to have their children baptized (PANL 1794:81-81v). Their principal spokesman was Louis Gougou who seems to have lived in the Baie St. George region. The baptismal acts in question have not been located. The officiating priest was probably abbé Jean Longueville. He is stated to have been at Miquelon on 2 November, 1793, and most likely accompanied the deportees who were sent to France the following year (David 1925:206). Except for a brief interlude during 1802-1803 (Treaty of Amiens), British rule was maintained throughout the Napoleonic Wars, and not until 1815 were St. Pierre and Miquelon again handed back to the French.

 

MI’KMAQ IN THE PARISH RECORDS

Excluding the time span of British occupation and other unexplained gaps, the early microfilmed French parish registers from 1763-1848 cover a total number of 55 years. During the course of this period the St. Pierre and Miquelon registers contain 42 entries dealing with native people. These include 25 baptismal, 6 marriage, and 11 burial acts involving Mi’kmaw persons, as well as the insertion in the Miquelon register of details concerning a previous Mi’kmaw baptism which had taken place in 1775 at St. Germain de Rimouski in Québec, and one baptism of an Innu (Montagnais) boy adopted by a Mi’kmaw family. For some unexplained reason, all of the acts dating to the 1770’s are associated with Miquelon.

The complete details relating to these acts are presented in Annex 1. Of the eleven reported burials, seven took place on St. Pierre and four in Miquelon. Three of the deaths occurred on St. Pierre itself, while in the remaining instances the body was brought over from Newfoundland during the spring, usually within a time lapse of from 3 to 4 months after decease had occurred. An exception was that of Marie [Anonyme] who, in May 1785, died at the age of 91 in Newfoundland, but whose remains were only carried to St. Pierre during the autumn. The measures taken to temporarily preserve such human corpses are not indicated. They may have been smoked over a fire, or were perhaps left out in the open on a scaffold until the body had dried in the sun. Formerly, there had also been a practice of removing the entrails, brains, and skin, and after cutting the flesh into pieces, drying all these parts by smoking or else suspending them in the sun and then reuniting these with the bones for final burial (Le Clercq 1910:430-431). In at least four instances, possibly in conformity with health regulations, Edmèe Henry, the surgeon major of the French garrison on St. Pierre, was present as a witness at the burial.

 

Table 1: Acts Relating to Native People

  1. ILE MIQUELON
    a) Baptisms
    – Denis Huri………..28 August 1768
    – Anne-Marie [Bernard] Beguiddavalouet……………….20 April 1773
    – Veronique Pikteuaruel [baptisée à St-Germain de Rimouski, Que.]..13 Oct 1775
    – Joseph Le Basq…………………28 September 1776
    – Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel………15 July 1778
    – Jeanne Heli………………………..18 August 1778
    – Joseph-Marie Douset (sic)…..30 July 1786
    – Maly (sic) Bask…..1 May 1825
    – Patrice Caboguy….4 July 1848

    b) Marriages
    – Louis Beguiddavalouet and Janet Doujet…26 July 1778
    – François Doujet and Veronique Beguiddavalouet…26 July 1778

    c) Burials
    – Anne Etiennehuit…25 May 1786
    – Pierre Agathe…………4 July 1848
    – François Souly…………….4 July 1848
    – Unnamed male child………11 July 1848

    II. ILE SAINT-PIERRE
    a) Baptisms
    – Pierre [Anonymous]……14 March 1764
    – Jacques Heli……..8 November 1784
    – Dominique [Anonymous]……….6 June 1785
    – Anastasie [Anonymous] [Sekaquet?]………6 June 1785
    – Pauline Nikes………12 September 1785
    – Jean-Noël Helie……….10 September 1786
    – Marie-Joseth [Remond][Etienéhuit ?]…..8 November 1786
    – Jean – Andrè Etienèhuit……………..16 September 1789
    – Esther-Marie Etienèhuit…………….16 September 1789
    – Jean-Philipe (sic) Sekaquet…..16 September 1789
    – Marieanne-Françoise Helie…………………………7 May 1790
    – Margueritte Sekaquet…………….20 August 1790
    – Jean Martin [Montagnais]………………24 August 1790
    – Julienne Gougou………..8 September 1790
    – Anne Guilleaume (sic)……………..8 September 1790
    – Julien Charles Abamou………10 August 1791

    b) Marriages
    – Joseph Guillaume and Anne [Etienne][Gougou?]…..12 September 1785
    – Bernard D’Agues and Jeanne Germain………12 September 1785
    – Julien Helie and Anne-Magdelenne Guilleaume……..6 September 1790
    – Julien Etiennehuit and Rosalie Gougou……6 September 1790

    c) Burials
    – Marianne La Sauvagese…..26 May 1769
    – Jacques [Anonyme]….21 April 1785
    – Marie [Anonyme]…..12 September 1785
    – Jean-André Etiennehuit……6 May 1790
    – Jean-Marie-Noel (sic) Helie………6 May 1790
    – Magdeleine Arguimou…….3 September 1791
    – Angçque [Anonyme]……..29 December 1831

Although a definite number cannot be designated, due to several mix-ups by officiating priests, about 120 native people are mentioned altogether in the parish registers of St. Pierre and Miquelon. They include principal personages, parents, siblings, close family members, godparents, witnesses and friends.

In 20 instances only first names are provided, while 1 male child was unnamed. At least 49 specific family names occur: Abamou, Abassit, Agathe, Andress, Arguimou, Bartelemy, Barthelemi, Bask, Beguiddavalouet, Beri, [Bernard], Bonis, Bounis, Caboguy, D’Agues, Doucet, Doujet, Douset, Edouampiart, Etiençhuit, Etienne, Etiennehuit, Germain, Gobersz, Gougou, Grégoire, Guichetout, Guillaume, Guilleaume, Heli, Helie, Hely, Hobemouth, Huri, Le Basq, Martin, Mocoguenich, Nerpin, Nikes, Pegilahadeschz, Peter, Pikteuaruel, Pouce-Coupé, [Remond], [Reymond], Sekaquet, Souly, Sourien, and Thomma. Some of these appear to represent variants of the same surname: Bartelemy/Barthelmi, Basq/Le Basq, Bonis/Bounis/, Doucet/Doujet/Douset, Etienèhuit/Etiennehuit, Guillaume/Guilleaume, and Heli/Helie/Hely (Huri?). In at least 3 cases, apparently due to a lapse on the part of the officiating priest, abbé Paradis, the father’s given name appears to have been assigned as the family name: Bernard, Remond, and Reymond.3

The information provided in most of the above mentioned parish register acts is fairly concise and standardized. This does not apply to the entries made by Father Jean-Baptiste-Françoise Paradis, about whom more will be said later on. The designations “sauvage” or “Micmac” were customarily indicated. In the case of baptisms, the child’s given name and surname, age, the names of parents and godparents, and in some instances the actual place of birth, were usually included. In one particular case, that of Jacques Heli, who had been brought by his mother from Bay d’Espoir (Conne River Region) in Newfoundland to be baptized at St. Pierre on 8 November, 1784, the father was declared to be absent.

Almost all of these children had already been conditionally baptized at birth, either by a member of the family, a European, or by some respected native person in the community, possibly a catechist. This precaution reflects the absence of Catholic priests elsewhere in Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island during most of that period. On at least one occasion, a written certificate attesting to such emergency baptism carried out by an Irishman, which had taken place at Codroy, Newfoundland, in 1778, was presented by the parents of Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel to the parish priest at Miquelon.

Although the majority of official baptisms took place within 5 or 6 months of birth, there were also more extensive intervals of from 2 to 3 years. An exceptional case was that of Jean Martin, a Montagnais boy who had been adopted by a Mi’kmaq family, and was baptized on St. Pierre in 1790, at the age of ten.

With regard to godparents, in 12 instances both of them were natives, in 10 cases both were Eurocanadians, in 2 cases the godfather was a Mi’kmaw and the godmother a Frenchwoman, while no information is available for the remaining baptisms. As a general rule, children do not appear to have received the name of their gender parent. In eight cases the girl was either given her godmother’s name or had it included in a double name, for example, Esther-Marie. Where the boys were concerned, the godfather’s name was only conferred five times.

In the cases of marriage, the names of the principal personages, and those of their parents and witnesses were listed. In some instances, the native witnesses remained unnamed and were merely described as having been a group of “Amerindians”. Such Mi’kmaw gatherings sometimes provided an occasion for multiple religious ceremonies. On one occasion, in 1778, one pair of brother and sister married another pair of brother and sister. In 1790, during the last week of August and the first week of September, 5 baptisms, 2 marriages, and 1 burial were held at St. Pierre. On 16 September, 1789, three baptisms took place there on the same day, while 4 July, 1848, at Miquelon, one baptism and two burials were recorded.

With two possible exceptions, there is no evidence to show, either from parish registers, from administrative documents, or from census records, that any Mi’kmaq were permanent residents on the islands during the period 1763-1830.4 The first exception may have been a woman referred to as Marianna La Sauvagese (sic) who, in 1764, gave birth to a boy, Pierre, from an unknown father. She died in St. Pierre five years later, apparently without any relatives present, and may have been employed as a family servant. A second exception was Angèlique [Anonyme], buried on 29 December 1831, at St. Pierre, who may also have been a domestic servant.

On a number of occasions it was actually specified that the native families involved came there primarily on visits to fulfill their Easter devotions, to have marriages blessed and baptisms performed. Other reasons for Mi’kmaw visits to the islands were to obtain goods or presents such as arms, ammunition, clothing, various food supplies, material for outfitting their sailing sloops, and other necessities such as prayer books. In some instances the Mi’kmaq also traded caribou meat and fur, and seasonally exploited local faunal resources, notably seals.

During the second half of the 19th century, Mi’kmaw family visits to St. Pierre and Miquelon began to dwindle as access to Catholic priests in Newfoundland became easier and other economic opportunities opened up. As late as the 1920’s, however, Edward Paul of the Membertou Reserve in Nova Scotia was receiving letters, written in the Mi’kmaw language, from a brother who was working on St. Pierre Island as a plasterer and carpenter (Bernie Francis, pers. comm, 1995).

 

FATHER JEAN-BAPTISTE-FRANÇOIS PARADIS

 

No analysis of the parish registers of St. Pierre and Miquelon would be complete without devoting some discussion to Father Paradis. He was sent to serve, in 1767, as the parish priest of Miquelon, with the resounding title of Apostolic Vice-Prefect. His superior described him in 1769 as being “un sujet plein de moeurs et de piété, mais dont, par malheur, les forces et la Santé ne Répondent pas à son zéle, à son empressement, à son activité pour toutes espèces de bonnes oeuvres” (L’Isle-Dieu 1938:238; David 1929:438). In actual fact, Father Paradis does not seem to have been in full possession of his intellectual faculties, and this situation grew progressively worse over the years (Ribault 1968:19, 30-31). He became the bane of his fellow clergymen and religious superiors, as well as of the local civil authorities.

In 1788, a general assembly of the inhabitants of St. Pierre complained to the French Government that between 1783 and 1786 the parish registers had been kept in a negligent fashion, “très informes, s’y trouvant diverses lacunes, des Actes souscrits en blanc, plusieurs manquant de Dates, Noms ou Signatures, et presque tous diffus et sans règle”. They were worried lest these defects “ne pourroient qu’occasionner à l’avenir beaucoup d’incertitude sur l’État rèel et les Droits Civils de leurs familles.” They therefore requested that the registers for the years 1782-1786 be corrected and retranscribed in accordance with established practice (Archives de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon 1788).

In actual fact, such irregularities can be traced back over several decades. Easily distracted, but also given to sudden impulses, Father Paradis appears to have suffered from delusions and memory lapses and may even have been hard of hearing. Perhaps because he relied on an interpreter in his dealings with the Mi’kmaq, the place-name Bay Despair, an English translation of the French toponym Baie d’Espoir, was somehow rendered by him as “Baie des Hexasperes”, or Bay of the Exasperated Ones5.

Certain entries of his in the parish registers take up an entire page. They usually begin with a preamble setting out his official titles and duties, and are written in a rambling and often impenetrable style: full of blank spaces, omissions, grammatical errors, repetitions, corrections and insertions in the text as well as in the left hand margin, and signed with a huge flourish of a signature. The following is his entry for the marriage between Louis Beguiddavalouet and Jeannette Doujet, on 26 July, 1778, at Miquelon:

“Le vingt-six juillet de l’an de grace mille sept cens soixante dix huit, ne s’étant trouvé aucun empêchemens canonique, du moins parvenu à notre connaissance, la dispense des trois bans obtenue et accordée de nous en vertu de nos pouvoir apostoliques et pour des raisons graves, ainsi que toute dispense de consanguinité pour cas de besoin, hormis néanmoins la dispense de consanguinité du premier, ainsi que celle du second degré toute dispense de consanguinité, même du second au trois; pour en cas de besoin obtenue et accordée de nous en vertu de nos pouvoirs Apostoliques (ainsi que nous nous sommes exprimé, parce que nous ne pouvions rien définir de clair après ces bonnes gens, sinon qu’il nous a paru que les époux n’étoient point parens ni au premier ni au second degré): je soussigné Vice-préfet Apotolique faisant les fonctions curiales spécialement en cette isle Miquelon, ayant interrogé dans l’église de nôtre-Dame des Ardilliers de la ville de Miquelon Louis…dit Beguiddavalouet, agé d’environ 27 ans, fils par conséquent majeur, de Bernard…dit Beguiddavalouet, et de Marie Anne Gougou…son epouse, défunte tout novissime par accident de détachement de pierres, passant sous un cap, en la grande terre de terre neuve, ses père et mère: baptisé au Cap Breton par feu Monsieur Maillard, ancien missionnaire des sauvages, evêché de quebec, d’une part: et Janette Doujet, agée d’environ 20 ans, fille mineure de guillaume Doujet et de Marie Magdeleine Pegilahadeschz son épouse, ses père et mère: baptisée à l’isle St. Jean par Monsieur Cassiet; paroisse de St-Louis au nord est, evêché de quebec; d’autre part: tous deux actuellement domiciliés aux isles Berjaus [Burgeo] en terre neuve et passagers maintenant à l’isle Miquelon: après avoir recû leur mutuel Consentement je les ay, vers le milieu de la nuit, vû la nécessité de leur subit départ de Miquelon, Solennellement conjoints en mariage par paroles de présent et leur ai ensuite donné la bénédiction nuptiale selon la forme et les cérémonies observéés par notre mére la Sainte Eglise…”

 

In another entry he referred to the fishing hamlet of Miquelon as a “city”, and elsewhere addressed the Baron d’Angéac, commandant at St. Pierre, as “gouverneur généralissime” (Ribault 1966:33). He also described one baptism at St. Pierre (Jacques Heli, 8 November 1784) as having taken place “en notre chapelle domestique dédiée à S. Francois Xavier notre oratoire privé servant hic et nunc et tenant lieu d’Eglise de l’isle S. Pierre”. On at least three occasions, having failed to remember the native surname of the parents, he simply assigned the father’s given name to the child as its family name. In another instance, a marriage act dated 12 September, 1785, the bride’s name (Anne Gougou) was omitted and a shortened form of her mother’s name was substituted instead.

We do not know what the Mi’kmaq thought of Father Paradis, and whether, like the Eurocanadian habitants of St. Pierre and Miquelon they eventually became aware of and complained about the state of the parish registers. In 1785, Edmée Henry, the surgeon major of St. Pierre and Miquelon, diagnosed Father Paradis as being unfit to fulfill his pastoral duties, while Francois Sorbier de Villars, the procurator of the Séminaire de Missions-Etrangéres in Paris, and vicar general of the Bishop of Quebec, judged him from his letters to be insane (Codignola 1991:214 and finding aid #1186). Orders were given to Father Paradis to leave the islands, and he boarded a ship back to France on 15 November, 1786 (Ribault 1962:19).

Paradoxical as it may seem however, despite their deficiencies, those longwinded and eccentric register entries by Father Paradis contain invaluable ethnographical and ethnohistorical details which are lacking in the more succinct entries by other members of the clergy. He would, for example, question Mi’kmaw bridal couples about their age, where they were born and by which missionary they had been baptized, as well as the names and ages of siblings and other Amerindians present and various details about them. Note was also made of what regions of Newfoundland the Mi’kmaq families came from, such as Burgeo, Codroy, St. George Bay, Bonne Bay and Bay d’Espoir (Conne River region). Some of them were said to be domiciled in Louisbourg, Cape Breton Island, while others had lived in Prince Edward Island, or had travelled as far as the Gaspé Peninsula.

Based on five references, the link between the Conne River Mi’kmaw community in Newfoundland, and the St. Pierre and Miquelon Islands, can now be seen to extend back at least as far as the 1770’s.

In some instances abbé Paradis identifies the native persons who carried out conditional baptism. Another register entry relates that he performed two marriages in the middle of the night because the Mi’kmaq group had to make a sudden departure from Miquelon. This was presumably related to favourable weather conditions for travelling at sea. We also learn that the mother of one bridegroom (Marie-Anne Gougou) had died from the effects of a rock fall while passing underneath a cape, although no mention is made as to whether her remains were brought along for burial.

Father Paradis also preserved or else copied into one of his registers two interesting documents brought along by the parents of Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel, who had brought him to be baptized. Why he made these transcriptions is not made clear. Was it due to administrative zeal, or just out of simple curiosity? The baptismal entry reads:

 

  1. B. PIKTEUARUEL. Le quinze juillet mille sept cens soixante dix huit a été baptisé sous condition, Jean-Baptiste, né le premier janvier de la présente année mille cens soixante dix huit, le quel enfant a été ondoyé par un irlandais Catholique le trente un may mille sept soixante dix huit a Cadroy [Codroy] en terre-nueve, comme en fait foy le certificat laissé entre mes mains et apposé à la minute de l’acte actuel, laquelle minute relatife à l’année actuelle mille sept cens soixante dix huit, ce certificat nous à été remis par le pere et la mere du baptisé il fait mention du nom de celui qui à donné l’eau à l’enfant: Son nom est gabriel gugoo en date du trente-un may mille sept cens soixante dix huit, fils du légitime mariage (comme en fait foy un certificat, ci apposé et qui nous avons en outre frangeris ci-dessous immédiatement, au sujet du baptéme de Véronique pikteuaruel, en date du treiziéme octobre mille sept cens soixante quinze, au lieu dit St. germain de rimouski, signé jean Baptiste de la Brosse. F.A.) de gabriel pikteuaruel et de marie douset: le parrain louis hugo, son oncle paternel; la marraine lisette cormier; de cette isle-Miquelon; le parrain ainsi que le pere, et la mere; anciennement de Louisbourg ainsi qu-habituellement; les quels tous ont déclaré ne sçavoir signer, PARADIS Vice-pr. Ap. approuvée la syllabe u [?] celluy de pikteuarel; donc pikteuaruel

 

He then added the notation:
“Extrait imprimé d’un baptéme qui nous est parvenu entre les mains et que nous avons apposé à notre minute presente relative à l’année mille sept cens soixante dix huit, et laquelle minute nous conserverons soigneusement en notre presbytere de Miquelon: en outre que cet extrait de livre délivré à nous par le pere méme de l’enfant est y apposé: néanmoins nous l’avons couché mot à mot sur nos deux régistres”.

 

The following is the transcription by Father Paradis of the printed document which had come into his hands, relating to the earlier baptism of Véronique Pikteuaruel, a sister of Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel:

“Je soussigné prêtre de la Compagnie de jesus, Missionnaire des postes du domaine du roi, certifie a tous ceux qu’il appartiendra, qu’en vertu des pouvoirs, et commissions particulieres de Monseigneur l’Evêque de québec, étant en Mission au lieu dit St. germain de Rimouski – l’an mille sept cens soixante quinze – le trieziéme jour du mois d’octobre j’ai sous condition administré le sacrement de bapteme à Véroniqiue pikteuaruel, née du légitime mariage de gabriel pikteuaruel et de Marie Doujet – agée d’onze mois – et présentée par louis le page de St. germain, et genevieve Coté – en fois de quoi, j’ai fait, signé, et livre le Présent acte aux dits lieu, jour, mois et ans. JEAN BAPTISTE DE LA BROSSE F. A.

 

Collationné exactement sur la dusdite minute: ce en foi de quoi, je PARADIS vice Préfet Apostolique

 

The original baptismal act is missing from the surviving parish records of Rimouski, and we thus owe the conservation of its contents to an inhabitual procedure by abbé Paradis. It is easy to mock such an eccentric person but we should also render him justice. In fact, the printed document which he so carefully transcribed is of particular interest to scholars. Father de la Brosse was a missionary who served parishes and native communities within the estuary of the Lower St. Lawrence River. He took advantage of the installation of a printing press in Quebec City, in 1764, to institute the practice, from 1770 onward, of inscribing all his baptismal acts on printed formularies, to be inserted into the parish register, and copies of which were transmitted to the parents. He also expended considerable effort to introduce literacy into Montagnais communities, and among other things provided them with prayerbooks and catechisms. All this represented an historic innovation for those times (Hébert 1984:199-200).

In 1788, at the request of the local population, church and civil authorities on St. Pierre and Miquelon eventually standardized the formulation of baptismal, marriage, and burial acts. A number of old registers, containing entries by Father Paradis, were re-transcribed to conform with those regulations. In so doing all information considered unessential was left out as can be determined by comparing earlier and later versions of the same act, some of which are still extant. A case in point is the baptismal record of Jacques Heli on 8 November, 1784 (St. Pierre). The excesses and inadmissible lapses of Father Paradis needed to be corrected, but from an anthropological and ethno-historical point of view the new procedure was regrettable for it led to the loss of some interesting and uncommon items of information from this idiosyncratic observer, and closed the door to any such future initiatives by others.

 

Conclusion

No church records predating 1763, which relate to a Mi’kmaw presence on the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon have been uncovered thus far. However, French administrative archives do mention the arrival of some Mi’kmaw families from Cape Breton Island in 1706. They used the archipelago until 1708 as one of several temporary base camps within southern Newfoundland for staging raids against English settlements and for hunting and fur trapping excursions. Unfortunately, additional information is lacking. During the period 1713-1763, the Islands were under British rule and the archives pertaining to those fifty years have not been studied for evidence relating to native visits.

From 1763 to 1793, the bulk of the St. Pierre and Miquelon parish record entries were drawn up and signed by Spiritain Fathers.6 They include 22 baptismal, 6 marriage and 7 burial acts involving Mi’kmaw persons, in addition to one Montagnais (Innu) baptism, as well as the transcript of a Mi’kmaw baptism at St. Germain de Rimouski in Québec.

Existing gaps in the St. Pierre and Miquelon parish registers are attributable to Anglo-French hostilities which led to repeated raids and changes in political jurisdiction, and involved the deportation of the French population on several occasions. Between 1793 and 1814 the British government once again exercised control over the Islands. Thus far, only a single mention of local contact with any Mi’kmaw has been uncovered in the relevant London archives relating to that period.

In 1815, the French re-established themselves on St. Pierre and Miquelon. Despite the fact that there are government administrative reports (Sasco and Lehuenen 1970) about further Mi’kmaw visits to the Islands on at least three more occasions in 1817, 1834, and 1842, expressly for baptismal and marriage purposes, these events are not reflected in the available microfilmed parish records which end in 1830. Additional registers are available which have not yet been microfilmed. These mention a Mi’kmaw baptism on Miquelon in 1825, and one baptism and three burials in 1848.

It remains to be seen whether the Recollet, Jesuit and Vatican archives, as well as those of the Spiritain Seminary (Paris), in particular the correspondence and administrative papers of abbé Pierre de la Rue de l’Isle-Dieu, contain additional information pertaining to Mi’kmaw links with St. Pierre and Miquelon. Furthermore, a search should be made of English archival sources covering the periods of British occupancy, as well as French parish records dating post 1830.

With one possible exception, that of Marie La Sauvagese during the period 1764-1769, the information that can be gleaned from the parish records is not indicative of a permanent Mi’kmaw presence on St. Pierre and Miquelon.

On the other hand, some of the available data are of potential interest to Newfoundland Mi’kmaw land claims in that various regions are named which were frequented by specific Mi’kmaw families during the 18th century. These include Bonne Bay, Bay St. George, Codroy, “Yles Berjans” [Burgeo Islands], and most common of all, Bay d’Espoir [Conne River region]. They also provide evidence for wide ranging contact with Mi’kmaw communities on Cape Breton Island, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and the Gaspé. In brief, they reveal the existence of a social network which covered the entire homeland of the Mi’kmaw people. Finally, one item, the baptism at St. Pierre in 1790, of a Montagnais boy who had been adopted by a Mi’kmaw family, provides further insight into Mi’kmaq – Montagnais relations in Newfoundland during the 18th century (Martijn 1990).

The data contained in the Mi’kmaw extracts from the parish records of St. Pierre and Miquelon require further analysis. Among other things, it is hoped that the information made available here will ultimately allow for genealogical link-ups between Mi’kmaw families in Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island, as well as with relatives elsewhere in Megumage, the Mi’kmaw homeland.

What was the affiliation of the Mi’kmaq who visited St. Pierre and Miquelon during the second half of the 18th century? Were they originally from Newfoundland itself or did they represent new arrivals from Cape Breton Island and elsewhere on the continent, or perhaps an admixture of both?

According to their oral tradition, an early permanent Mi’kmaw population in Newfoundland had inhabited the southern and western parts of the island prior to the 18th century and had merged with later Mi’kmaw immigrants from Cape Breton Island. The anthropologist, Speck (1922:123), relates that:

“Throughout Newfoundland the Indians [the Mi’kmaq] refer to their predecessors as ‘Sayewedjkik’, the ‘ancients’, speaking of them as though they were the first inhabitants on the island…I think we may conclude that the term simply refers to the earlier Micmac colonists from the mainland, whose numbers were few and whose isolation rendered them distinct in some respects in culture and possibly in dialect. These peoples are believed to have been true Micmac and to have had a complete native nomenclature for the prominent places in the island…”.

 

Massive seasonal migration movements from Cape Breton Island to Newfoundland took place during the years 1763-1768, under the leadership of Chief Jeannot Peguidalouet (Bartels and Janzen 1990; Balcom and Martijn n.d.). Many of these Mi’kmaw families subsequently remained in Newfoundland on a permanent basis. To all appearances, most of Peguidalouet’s followers were originally from the Mirliguéche (Malagawatch) district on Lake Bras d’Or in the south-central part of Cape Breton Island. In 1750, they moved from there to Chapel Island near Port Toulouse (Martijn 1989:220-223). However, the later exodus to Newfoundland seems to have been joined by Mi’kmaw households from more distant regions in the Maritimes who were also seeking relief from pressures exerted on their hunting and fishing territories by large numbers of incoming British settlers. All these events merit additional study and elucidation.

Another particular subject will need specific attention. As Anger (1984:4/1-4/3) has pointed out, the changing of surnames by Newfoundland Mi’kmaq at various moments in the past, together with a high rate of intermarriage between whites and Mi’kmaq presents quite a challenge for genealogical research. We require a better understanding of the context, motivations, and processes whereby such surname changes took place over time and by whom the decisions were made: missionairies? civil authorities? individual family members? These include the practice of using the father’s first name as the children’s surname over successive generations; the inversion of two common first names to arrive at a family name (ex. from Sylvestre Joe to Joe Sylvestre); or the discarding of a native name in favour of a completely new surname, whether French or English. The untangling of all these past developments constitutes a formidable, and perhaps impossible, task.

 

Charles A. Martijn, 1996

 

Acknowledgements

I am most grateful to Madame Andrée Lebailly of St. Pierre who first drew my attention to these parish registers. I am also much obliged to my colleague, Mich Gaumond, for his help in deciphering some of the more difficult handwriting passages of these extracts, and for commenting on a variety of aspects relating to 18th century French culture in Eastern Canada. In addition, my thanks are extended to the staff of the Archives nationales du Québec in Sainte-Foy for their professional courtesy. Finally, I am indebted to Claude Gélinas for his translation work, to Marcelle Roy for her editorial assistance, and to Maurice Ratelle for various comments in his capacity as external reader.

 

Footnotes

1I have adopted this spelling in conformity with the new orthography proposed by native Mi’kmaw linguists Doug Smith and Bernard Francis of the Mi’kmaq Association of Cultural Studies in Sydney, Nova Scotia. See:Prins (1996:5).

2This fallacious “Mi’kmaq Mercenary Myth” has been refuted by several scholars. For example, see Bartels (1988).

3Speck (1922:134) observed regarding the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq that “the family and personal names in this band are often transposed; this causes some confusion to those who do not allow for this peculiarity”. Commenting on this statement, Hewson (1982:14) has postulated that “from the middle of the eighteenth century onwards the Newfoundland Micmac, as former allies of the French, went to St. Pierre to be baptized and it is possible that the official French style of placing the family name first is the origin of the custom reported by Speck”. Many of the acts inscribed in the parish registers of St. Pierre and Miquelon do indeed have the family name written first in their left-hand margin as a guide, but this was not a general rule, and the given name, or else the initials, just as often come first within the margins and in the acts themselves. As mentioned elsewhere, abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis did on at least three occasions assign the father’s given name to a native child as its family name. However, this does not appear to have been part of an official policy, but merely a personal aberration. Nonetheless the subject of name transposition among the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq requires further exploration.

4During the years 1706-1708, some 20 families of Cape Breton Mi’kmaq used the island of St. Pierre as part of a network of seasonal base camps which covered a specific area of southern Newfoundland, enabling them both to hunt and to trap furs, and to attack the English settlements (Martijn 1996). In passing, the Gargas census of Acadia, in 1688, recorded the presence of 24 Mi’kmaw households on the Isles (sic) St. Pierre, composed of 25 men, 18 women, and 34 children, for a total of 77 persons. No white inhabitants are listed (Morse 1935, I:149-151, 159, 188). It has been mistakenly assumed by Wicken (1994:109) and Prins (1996:91) that this is a reference to the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. In actual fact, the above mentioned islands are located in the vicinity of St. Pierre (Port Toulouse) on the south-east coast of Cape Breton Island.

5 It is sometimes claimed that the name Bay Despair represents an English corruption of the French name Baie d’Espoir. However, the inverse may be true. The French cartographer Bellin, on his 1743 map “Carte de l’Isle de Terre-Neuve” has “Baye du Desespoir” (sic). It would appear therefore that the actual sequence may have been from “Baie du Désespoir” to the English literal translation “Bay Despair”, which appears as early as 1733 on a Henry Popple map, and then to a French corruption of this, namely “Baie d’Espoir”! I am obliged to Fred Powell for bringing this to my attention.

6According to Codignola (1997) during the period 1763-1816, the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon were served by eight priests. Two were Jesuits (Ardilliers and Bonnécamps), three were Spiritain Fathers (Becquet, Bouguet, and Paradis), while the remaining three were secular priests associated with the Séminaire des Mission-Étrangères (Allain, Le Jamtel, and Longueville).

 

Bibliography

Anger, Dorothy, 1984: “Potential Eligibility of Native People on the Island of Newfoundland outside of Conne River as Status Indians”. Ms. 64pp., Council of the Conne River Micmacs, Conne River, Newfoundland.

Anonymous, n.d.: “Histoire de St. Pierre et Miquelon”. Ms. 174pp., Séminaire du Saint-Esprit, Paris, 1703-1880, National Archives of Canada, MG17, A8, Ottawa.

Anonymous [un missionaire], 1939: “Les Iles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon: colonie Française de l’Amérique du Nord”. Maison-Mére des Péres du Saint-Esprit, Paris.

Archives de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, 1788: “extraits de la Rédaction du Registre des Baptémes, Mariages et Sépultures de la Paroisse de St.-Pierre: Requéte des Habitans”. France D’Outre-Mer: Dépôt des Papiers publics des Colonies; Etat-civil des Iles Saint Pierre et Miquelon. G1, 414: Saint-Pierre (1), 1763-1787, Saint-Pierre, Iles de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon.

Archives Nationales du Canada (ANC), 1686: “Correspondence Terre-Neuve”. Archives des Colonies, MG1, série F-3, vol. 54, folios 273-278, Ottawa.

Aubert de la Rue, Edgar, 1970: “Saint-Pierre et Miquelon”. Horizons de France, Paris.

Balcom, B.A. (Sandy) et Charles A. Martijn, n.d.: “Fonds de recherche: Jeannot Peguidalouet, chef Mi’kmaq (bibliographie, correspondence, documentation)”. Dossier, Québec.

Bartels, Dennis, 1988: “Ktaqamkuk Inui Sagimawoutie: Aboriginal Rights and the Myths of Micmac Mercenaries in Newfoundland” in Native People, Native Lands: Canadian Indians, Inuit and Metis, Bruce A. Cox (ed.), Chapter 3, pp.32-36, Carleton Library Series #142, Carleton University Press, Ottawa.

Bartels, Dennis et Olaf Uwe Janzen, 1990: “Micmac Migration to Western Newfoundland”. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, Vol. X, No. 1, pp. 71-96.

Bellin, Jacques-Nicolas, 1744: “Carte de l’Isle de Terre-Neuve” in Pierre-Francoise-Xavier de Charlevoix, Histoire et description génಡrale de la Nouvelle-France”, Vol. IV, chez Nyon et Fils, Paris.

Bideaux, Michel, 1986: “Jacques Cartier Relations”. Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal, Montréal.

Biays, Pierre, 1952: “Un village terreneuvien Cap-St-Georges”. Cahiers de géographie I, Publications de l’Institut d’histoire et de géographie, Université Laval, Les Presses Universitaires Laval, Québec.

Bonin, Henriette, 1970: “Saint-Pierre et Miquelon”. Leméac, Montreal.

Chapelot, Jean, Aliette Geistdoerfer and Eric Rieth, 1982: “Les Iles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon: étude archéologique, historique et ethnographique”. 2 Vol., Laboratoire Associé d’Histoire Maritime du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Centre de Recherches Historiques de l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), Paris.

Codignola, Luca, 1991a: “Guide des documents relatifs à l’Amérique du Nord Francaise et anglaise dans les archives de la Sacrée Congégation de la Propagande à Rome, 1622-1799”. Avec instrument de recherche #1186, Archives nationales du Canada, Ottawa.

Codignola, Luca, 1991b: “Vatican: Archives de la Sacrée Congrégation de la Propagande à Rome, 1622-1799. Instrument de recherche #1186”. Archives nationales du Canada, Ottawa.

Codignola, Luca, 1995: “Les Améridiens dans les archives de la Sacrée Congrégation de Propaganda Fide à Rome (1610-1799)”. Canadian/Folklore/Canadien, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp.139-148.

Codignola, Luca, 1997: “French Missionaries in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon After the Conquest, 1763-1816”. For publication in “Proceedings of the 22nd Meeting of the French Colonial Historical Society, (Poitiers, France, 4-6 June 1996)”, David Buiseret (ed.), University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland.

David, Albert, 1925: “Les missionnaires du Séminaire du Saint-Esprit à Québec et en Acadie au XVIIIe siécle”. Nova Francia, Vol.I, pp.9-14;52-56;99-105;152-159 and 200-207.

David, Albert, 1929: “Les Spiritains à St.-Pierre et Miquelon”. Bulletin de Recherches Historiques, Pierre-Georges Roy (ed.), Vol. 35, pp.437-441, Lévis (Québec).

Detcheverry, Jean-Pierre, 1996: “Letter to Charles A. Martijn, dated 20 August 1996″. MS. 1p. , annex:”Mi’kmaq 19th century baptismal and burial acts from Miquelon parish registers, 1825 and 1848″, Québec.

Girardin, Rodrique, 1993:”Répertoire des décés enregistrés à Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, 1819-1889.” Service d’archives, Conseil général de la collectictivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Saint-Pierre, Archipel de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon.

Guyotjeannin, Charles, 1988: “Saint Pierre et Miquelon”. Editions L’Harmattan, Paris.

Harrisse, Henry, 1900: “Découverte et évolution cartographique de Terre-Neuve et des pays circonvoisons, 1497-1501-1769”. Henry Stevens, Son and Stiles, London.

Hébert, Léo-Paul, 1984: “Histoire ou Légende? Jean-Baptiste de la Brosse”. Les Editions Bellarmin, Montréal.

Hewson, John, 1981: “Boss, Noel”. In: “Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador,” Vol.I, Joseph R. Smallwood (ed.), p.228, Newfoundland Book Publishers (1967) Limited, St. John’s, Newfoundland.

Hewson, John, 1982: “The Name ‘Presentic’ and Other Ancient Micmac Toponyms”. Newfoundland Quarterly, Vol.77, No. 4, Winter 1981-82, pp.11-14, St. John’s, Newfoundland.

Hugolin, R.P., 1911: “L’Etablissement des Récollets de la Province de Saint-Denis à Plaisance en l’Ile de Terre-Neuve 1689”. Québec.

Jackson, Douglas et Gerald Penney, 1993: “On the Country – the Micmac of Newfoundland”. Harry Cuff Publications Limited, St. John’s, Newfoundland.

Lebailly, Andrée, 1988:”Saint-Pierre et Miquelon. histoire de l’archipel et de sa population”. Editions Jean-Jacques Oliviéro, Conseil Général de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, Saint-Pierre, Iles de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon.

Le Clerq, Chrestien, 1910: “New Relation of Gaspasia”. William F. Ganong (ed.), The Champlain Society, Toronto.

L’Isle-Dieu, Pierre de la Rue, abbé de, 1938:”Lettre à Mgr. le Nonce apostolique à Paris (5 juin 1769)”. In: Rapport de l’archiviste de la Province de Québec pour 1937-1938, pp.237-241, Rédempti Paradis, Québec.

Martijn, Charles A. (ed.), 1986:”Les Micmacs et la mer” Signes des Amériques No.5, Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, Montréal.

Martijn, Charles A,, 1989: “An Eastern Micmac Domain of Islands”. Actes du Vingtiéme Congrés des Algonquinistes, William Cowan (ed.), pp.208-231, Université Carlton, Ottawa.

Martijn, Charles A., 1990: “Innu (Montagnais) in Newfoundland”. In: “Papers of the Twenty-First Algonquian Conference”, William Cowan (ed.), pp.227-246, Carleton University, Ottawa.

Martijn, Charles A., 1995a: “Bibliographie préliminaire/Preliminary Bibliography: La présence micmaque aux îles de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon/The Mi’kmaq Presence on the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon”. MS. 20pp., Québec.

Martijn, Charles A., 1995b: “A Review of the Past Mi’kmaq Land Claims Submission”. Ms. 25pp., 4 annexes, Council of the Conne River Micmac, Conne River, Newfoundland.

Martijn, Charles A., 1996a: “Historic Mi’kmaq Presence in Southern Newfoundland: The Early Contact Period A.D. 1480-1713”. Ms., 45pp., Council of the Conne River Micmac, Conne River, Newfoundland.

Martijn, Charles A., 1996b: “Mi’kmaq in the Parish Registers of the Islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1763-1830” Ms. 28 pp. 2 annexes, Québec.

Martijn, Charles A., et Andrée Lebailly, n.d.: “Fonds de recherche: La présence micmaque aux Iles de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon (bibliographie, correspondence, documentation)”. Dossier, Québec.

Morison, Samuel Eliot, 1971: “The European Discovery of America. The Northern Voyages”. Oxford University Press, New York.

Morse, William Inglis, 1935: “Acadiensia Nova (1598-1779)”. 2 Vol. Bernard Quaritch Ltd., London.

Musset, Georges (ed.), 1904: “La Cosmographie avec l’Espére et Régime du Soliel et du Nord, par Jean Fontenneau dit Alfonse de Saintonge”. Ernest Leroux, Editeur, Paris,

National Archives of Canada (NAC), 1686: “Correspondance Terre-Neuve”. Archives des Colonies, MG1, série F-3, Vol. 54, folios 273-278, Ottawa.

PANL (Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador), 1790: “Newman’s Little Bay Ledger 1790-1791”. Newman Papers, Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John’s, Newfoundland.

PANL (Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador), 1794: “Letter from Major Peregrine Fras. Thorne to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas, dated 26 May, Island of St. Peter’s”. CO 194/41, folios 80-81v, St. John’s, Newfoundland.

PANL (Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador) 1845: “Letter from J. Pott to Sir John Harvey, dated 26 October 1845”. GN 2/2, folios 470-477, St. John’s.

Poirier, Michel, 1984: “Les Acadiens aux îles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, 1758-1828”. Editions d’Acadie, Moncton, Nouveau-Brunswick.

Popple, Henry, 1733: “A Map of the British Empire in North America with the French and Spanish settlements adjacent thereto”. London.

Prins, Harald E. L., 1996: “The Mi’kmaq: Resistance, Accommodation, and Cultural Survival”. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, New York.

Quinn, David Beers, 1982: “Newfoundland in the Consciousness of Europe in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries”. In: “Early European Settlement and Exploitation in Atlantic Canada”. G. M. Story (ed.), pp.6-30, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland.

Ribault, Jean-Yves, 1962: “Les îles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon (des origines à 1814)”. Imprimerie du Gouvernement, Saint-Pierre, Iles de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon.

Ribault, Jean-Yves, 1966: “La population des îles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon de 1763 à 1793”. Revue française d’Histoire d’Outre-Mer, Tome LIII, Nos. 190-191, pp.5-66, Paris.

Rousseau, Jacques, 1963: “Des naturalistes à la Découverte du Canada au XIXe siècle”. Cahiers des Dix, Numéro 28, pp.180-208, Montreal.

Sasco, Emile, n.d.: “Catalogue des archives se Saint-Pierre et Miquelon”. Ms., Archives de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, Saint-Pierre, Iles de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon.

Sasco, Emile et Joseph Lehuenen, 1970: “Ephémérides des îles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon”. Imprimerie du Gouvernement, Saint-Pierre, Iles de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon.

Schmidt, P., 1983: “Découverte d’un site amérindien (sic) à la ‘pointe à Henry’, Iles Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon”. Bulletin de la Societé préhistorique francaise, Vol. 80, p. 272.

Speck, Frank G., 1922: “Beothuk and Micmac”. Indian Notes and Monographs, Miscellaneous Series No. 22, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York.

Thibodeau, Fernand-D., 1962: “Recensement de Terre Neuve 1687 à 1704”. Mémoires se la Société Généalogique Canadienne-Franîaise, Vol. XIII, No. 10, Octobre, pp.204-208.

Toque, Philip, 1878: “Newfoundland As It Was, And As It Is in 1877”. John B. Magurn, Toronto.

Vigneras, Louis-André, 1966: “Fagundes, Joao Alveres”. In”‘Dictionnaire biographique du Canada’, George W. Brown (ed.), pp.303-304, Les Presses de l’Université Laval, Quebec.

Whitehead, Ruth Holmes, 1988:”Les traditions artistiques de la Côte atlantique”. In: ‘Le souffle de l’esprit. Coutumes et traditions chez les Indiens d’Amérique’, Julia D. Harrison, (ed.), pp.17-49, Editions Quebec/Amerique, Montreal.

Whitehead, Ruth Holmes, 1991: The Old Man Told Us”. Nimbus Publishing Ltd. Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Wicken, William C., 1994:”Encounters with Tall Sails and Tall Tales: Mi’kmaq Society 1500-1760″. Ph.D Thesis, 488 pp., Dept. of History, McGill University, Montreal.

ANNEX

Alphabetical List of Mi’kmaq Names Occurring in the Parish Registers of the Islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon 1763-1848

 

Abamou, Jacob
Husband of: Marie Bartelemy (sic); mentioned as being present at the baptism of Anne-Marie Bernard [Beguiddavalouet?] on 20 April, 1773, Miquelon; reported as having given conditional baptism at home to Jeanne Heli in Bay Despair, in the absence of a priest. Note: he may have played the role of a Catholic Church catechist in the Bay Despair region of Newfoundland

 

Abamou, Julien-Charles
Son of: Jacob Abamou and Marie Bartelemy (sic); born March 1789 (?) at Baye St. George in Newfoundland; conditional baptism at birth; baptized at the age of 2 years and 5 months, 10 August, 1791, St. Pierre; officiating priest: abbé Jean Longueville; godfather: Julien Herpin who signed; godmother: Charlotte (sic) Guillaume, who signed. (See: Charlotte Guillaume in Poirier 1984:269,316.) She may have been a Métis (Lebailly 1996).

 

Abassit, Caroline-Françoise
Wife of: husband’s name not given because the officiating priest could not understand it; mother of: Patrice Caboguy, baptized 4 July, 1848, Miquelon; said to be living in Newfoundland. Note:this information is contained in a separate Miquelon parish register examined by Detcheverry (1996).

 

Agathe, Michel
Husband of: Louise [family name not given]; father of: Pierre Agathe, buried 4 July, 1848, Miquelon; referred to as “Le roi des Sauvages”, the ‘king’ or chief of the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq. Note: this information is contained in a separate Miquelon parish register examined by Detcheverry (1996). Agathe was present as a witness not only at the burial of his own son, Pierre, but also at the burials of François Souly (4 July 1848, Miquelon) and an unnamed male Mi’kmaq child (11 July, 1848, Miquelon). He may be the same person mentioned in 1827 by a Methodist missionary named Noall, who reported meeting a “Captain Michell” (sic) at a place called Gaultois, whom he described as “the Chief of the gang of [Mi’kmaq] Indians from White-Bear-Bay”. From the missionary”s conversation with this personage it turned out that the latter had been to London (England), St. John’s, and Halifax (Toque 1878:200). On 12 December, 1842, the French commandant of St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alphonse-Joseph Desrousseaux, wrote in a report that “the chief of a band from the west of Newfoundland [Bay St. George?] known as ‘King Michel Agathe’, who came to St. Pierre with more than 100 people of his tribe, at the beginning of this month, to make their annual devotions, was lost with all his people and goods in a squall, while returning home” (translated from the French, Whitehead 1991:221). Since Michel Agathe was back on Miquelon in 1848, it appears this story is an erroneous one. At the turn of the twentieth century, Michel Agathe still figured in the French oral tradition of St. Pierre and Miquelon. Children who liked to dress up were teasingly said to “resemble Michel Agathe”. (Bonin 1970:34). He is probably the same person referred to on 26 October, 1845, by J. Pott in a ltetter to Sir John Harvey [in: Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador, GN2/2, folios 470-477]. Pott stated that “…we resolved to call in at Bay St. George [south-western Newfoundland] where about 60 [Mi’kmaq] reside and acquaint them with our proceedings…I found out two old men pretending to considerable influence over all the Indians in Newfoundland. One calling himself “King Mitchell” and the other “Noel Gougond”…”.

 

Agathe, Pierre
Born: 1835, presumably in Nfld.; son of Michel Agathe, Newfoundland Mi’kmaq chief, and Louise [family name not given]; died at age 13 years; buried 4 July, 1848, in the cemetery of Miquelon; officiating priest: Amateur-Jean Charlot; witnesses: his father and mother, several other Amerindians who did not know how to sign. Note: this information is contained in a separate Miquelon parish register examined by Detcheverry (1996).

 

Andress, Julienne [The Elder?]
Wife of: Jean Helie [The Elder?]; mother of Julien Helie; godmother of Julienne Gougou, 8 September, 1790 (St. Pierre); mother-in-law of: Anne-Magdalenne (sic) Guilleaume, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre. Note: it is possible that upon the death of her first husband, Jean Helie [The Elder?], she married Joseph Guilleaume.

 

Andress, Julienne [The Younger?]
Wife of: Joseph Guilleaume; mother of: Anne Guilleaume, who was baptized on 8 September, 1790, St. Pierre. Note: was she perhaps the widow of Jean Helie [The Elder?] subsequently married to Joseph Guilleaume?

Anonymous [unnamed male child]
Born: unknown date in Newfoundland; son of: parents’ names not given; died 10 July 1848 at Miquelon; buried: 11 July, 1848 in the cemetery of Miquelon; officiating priest: Amateur-Jean Charlot; witnesses: Chief Michel Agathe, several Amerindians and Monsieur Porot, Gendarmerie Brigadier, none of whom signed.

 

Anonymous, Agathe [Edouampiart?]
Wife of: Jean Baptiste [family name not given], perhaps Jean-Baptiste Sekaquet; mother of: Anastasie [family name not given] who was baptized 6 June 1785, St. Pierre; probably the godmother of: Dominique [family name not given] at his baptism 6 June, 1785, St. Pierre.

 

Anonymous, Anastasie [Sekaquet?]
Daughter of: Jean-Baptiste [family name not given; perhaps Sekaquet] and Agathe [family name not given:perhaps Edouampiart]; born: March 1785 and given conditional baptism, place of birth not given; baptized at 3 months 6 June, 1785, St. Pierre; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; godfather: Grégoire [family name not given, presumably Mi’kmaq]; godmother: Julienne [family name not given, also presumably Mi’kamq]. Note: this was a transcription and some of the original information may have been left out.

 

Anonymous, Andrès
Husband of: Marie [family name not given]. Note: he had already died when she was buried, at the age of 91 on 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre.

 

Anonymous, Angélique
Born: 1803 (?), Newfoundland (“indigène de Terre-neuve”); died 28 December, 1831 at 4:00 a.m. in the house of Monsieur Léandre-Charles Phélipot (Saint-Pierre); buried: 29 December, 1831, at 10:00 a.m., St. Pierre; officier de l’état civil; Alexandre Duhamel; witnesses: Léandre-Charles Phélipot, habitant (34 years) and Louis-François Lemoine, écrivain de marine (29 years). Note: she may have been a domestic with the Phélipot family (M. Rodrigue Girardin, letter dated 21 November, 1996, p.2).

 

Anonymous, Anne
Daughter of: Charles [family name not given, perhaps Bonis] and Magdeleine [family name not given]; wife of: Jeanne Heli (sic); mother of: Jeanne Heli, who was baptized on 18 August, 1778, Miquelon; possibly sister of Pierre Bonis. Note: living in the “Baye des Experes” [Bay Despair] area, Newfoundland.

 

Anonymous, Charles
Husband of Magdeleine [family name not given]; father of Anne [family name not given, perhaps, Bonis]; maternal grandfather of Jeanne Heli; possibly father of Pierre Bonis and Jeanne Bonis.

 

Anonymous, Christophe
Husband of: Susanne [family name not given]; father of: Dominique [family name not given] who was baptized 6 June, 1785, St. Pierre

 

Anonymous, Dominique
Son of: Christophe and Susanne [family names not given]; born: April 1785 [place of birth not given]; conditional baptism at birth; baptized at the age of 2 months, 6 June 1785, St. Pierre; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-Françoise Paradis; godfather: Grégoire [family name not given, presumably Mi’kmaq]; godmother: Agathe [family name not given, presumably Mi’kmaq]. Note: this was a transcription and some of the original information may have been left out.

 

Anonymous, Françoise
Wife of: Pierre Souly; mother of: François Souly, buried 4 July, 1848, Miquelon

 

Anonymous, Grégoire
Godfather of: Domenique [family name not given] who was baptized 6 June, 1785, St. Pierre; probably the same person who was the godfather of: Anastasie [family name not given], at her baptism on 6 June, 1785, St. Pierre.

 

Anonymous, Isabelle; see: Isabelle Doucet
Godmother of: Pauline Nikes, who was baptized on 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre

 

Anonymous, Jacques
Place and date of birth not given; died: 15 February 1785 in Newfoundland; body transported to St. Pierre, buried 21 April, 1785; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses: Sieur Edmée Henry, surgeon major, and Sieur Hutines. Note: this was a transcription and ioriginal information may have been omitted.

 

Anonymous, Jean-Baptiste [Sekaquet?]
Husband of: Agathe [family name not given]; father of: Anastasie [family name not given] who was baptized 6 June, 1785, St. Pierre

 

Anonymous, Judith
Wife of: François Nikes; mother of: Pauline Nikes, who was baptized 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre

 

Anonymous, Julienne
Godmother of: Anastasie [family name not given] who was baptized 6 June, 1785, St. Pierre

 

Anonymous, Louise
Wife of: Michel Agathe; mother of: Pierre Agathe, buried 4 July, 1848, Miquelon

 

Anonymous, Magdeleine
Wife of: Charles [family name not given, perhaps ‘Bonis’]; mother of: Anne [family name not given, perhaps ‘Bonis’]; maternal grandmother of: Jeanne Heli; possibly mother of: Pierre Bonis and Jeanne Bonis

 

Anonymous, Marianne “La Sauvagese” (sic)
Mother of: Pierre [family name not given] who was baptized on 14 January, 1764, St. Pierre; born: 1719 (?), location unknown; died at the age of about 50 years, 25 May, 1769, probably at St. Pierre; buried 26 May, 1769, St. Pierre; officiating priest: abbé Julien-François Becquet; witnesses: Charles Mouline and Jean-Baptiste Sylvain, Eurocanadians, who both signed.

 

Anonymous, Marie
Wife (widow) of: Andrés [family name not given]; born 1694 (?), place of birth not given; died at age 91 years – May, 1785, in Newfoundland; remains transported to St. Pierre where she was buried 12 September, 1785; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses: several Amerindians. Note: This was a transcription and some of the original information may have been left out.

 

Anonymous, Marie-Angélique
Wife of: Michel-Giles (sic) D’Agues; mother of: Bernard D’Agues, who married on 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre; mother-in-law of: Jeanne Germain

 

Anonymous, Pierre
Son of [father unknown] and Marie “La Sauvagese” (sic); born: 14 January, 1764, presumably at St. Pierre; baptized 14 January 1764, St. Pierre; officiating priest: Abbé Joseph-Pierre de Bonnécamps; godfather: Pierre Texier, Eurocanadian, who signed; godmother: Françoise Jaichot, Eurocanadian, who also signed.

 

Anonymous, Remond; see: Raimond Etiennehuit
Husband of: Isabelle Doucet; father of: Marie- Joseth Remond, who was baptized 8 November, 1786, St. Pierre

 

Anonymous, Susanne
Wife of: Christophe [no family name given]; mother of: Dominique, who was baptized 6 June, 1785, St. Pierre

 

Arguimou, Magdeleine
Born: 1714(?); died at age 77 years, 2 September, 1791, presumably at St. Pierre; buried 3 September, 1791, St. Pierre; officiating priest: abbé Jean Longueville; witnesses: abbé François Le Jamtel de la Bloutherie and Sieur Edmée Henry, surgeon major, who signed.

 

Bartelemy (sic), Marie
Wife of: Jacob Abamou; mother of: Julien-Charles Abamou, baptized 10 August, 1791, St. Pierre

 

Barthelemi, Jerôme
Godfather of: Anne-Marie Bernard [Beguiddavalouet?], 20 April, 1773, Miquelon; possibly the brother of: Marie Barthelemi

 

Barthelemi, Marie
Wife of: Antoine Germain; mother of: Jeanne Germain; mother-in-law of: Bernard D’Agues, 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre; possibly the sister of: Jerôme Barthelmi; probably the godmother of: Anne-Marie Bernard [Beguiddavalouet?], 20 April, 1773, Miquelon.

 

Bask, Maly (Mary; Marie)
Daughter of: Noel Bask and Marie Anne Peter; born: during the spring (?) of 1824 in Newfoundland; baptized at the age of about one year on 1 May, 1825, Miquelon; officiating priest: Charles-Auguste Lairez; godfather: Mathieu Peter, a maternal uncle; godmother: Souzan Thomma, an aunt. Note: this information is contained in a separate Miquelon parish register examined by Detcheverry (1996). A reference to this baptismal act is also made in the following publication: Soeurs de St-Joseph de Cluny, 1928:45:”Iles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, 1826-1926, un centénaire d’apostolat”. M.A.-Léo Leymarie, Paris.

 

Bask, Noel
Father of: Maly Bask, who was baptized on 1 May, 1825, Miquelon; husband of: Marie Anne Peter; siad to be living in Newfoundland. Note: this information is contained in a separate Miquelon parish register examined by Detcheverry (1996). He may be the same person as the Noel Boss mentioned in Howley (1915).

 

Beguiddavalouet, Anne-Marie; see: [Bernard], Anne-Marie

 

Beguiddavalouet, Bernard (Joseph?)
Place and date of birth not given, possibly born on Cape Breton Island; possibly son of: Chief Jeannot Peguidalouet and [?]; possibly grandson of: Joseph Piguidaouaret and Therese [no family name given]; husband of: Marie-Anne Gougou; father of: Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Louis Beguiddavalouet, Véronique Beguiddavalouet, and Anne-Marie [Bernard] Beguiddavalouet; father-in-law of: Janette Doujet; visitor to Miquelon on 20 April, 1776, for the baptism of his daughter, Anne-Marie, and on 26 July, 1778 for the wedding of his son, Louis. Note: said to be living in the “Yles Berjaus” region, Newfoundland, and to have come to Miquelon for Easter celebrations. The “Yles Berjaus” region is probably the Burgeo Islands area (Whitehead 1991:174). Information on his probable father and grandfather are provided in Whitehead (1991:86, 167). He may be the ancestor of the present Bernard family in Newfoundland. [1996]

 

Beguiddavalouet, Gabriel
Born: 1743 (?), place of birth not given; son of: Bernard (Joseph?) Beguiddavalouet and Marie-Anne Gougou; possibly grandson of: Chief Jeannot Peguidalouet and [?]; possibly great-grandson of: Joseph Piguidalouet and Therese [ no family name given]; brother of: Louis Beguiddavalouet, Véronique Beguiddavalouet, and Anne-Marie [Bernard] Beguiddavalouet; brother-in-law of: François Doujet and Janette Doujet; visitor to Miquelon on 26 July, 1778, and said to have come there for Easter celebrations.

 

Beguiddavalouet, Louis
Son of: Bernard (Joseph?) Beguiddavalouet and Marie-Anne Gougou; possibly grandson of: Chief Jeannot Peguidalouet and [?]; possibly great-grandson of:Joseph Piguidaouaret and Therese [no family name given]; brother of: Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Véronique Beguiddavalouet; and Anne-Marie [Bernard] Beguiddavalouet; son-in-law of: Guillaume Doujet and Marie-Magdeleine Pegilahadesclez; brother-in-law of: François Doujet; born 1751 (?), place of birth not given – probably Cape Breton; baptized by abbé Pierre Maillard on Cape Breton, date unknown; said to be living in the Yles Berjaus region of Newfoundland, probably the Burgeo Islands area (Whitehead 1991:174); married at the age of about 27 to Janette Doujet, 26 July, 1778, Miquelon; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses: Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Pierre Gobersz, aged 40 years (Mi’kmaq), Pépin Richard dit Menouche (Eurocanadian interpreter living on Miquelon), his brother Germain Richard, and a small group of Amerindians. None of them could sign. Note: the marriage took place in the middle of the night due to the fact that the Mi’kmaq group had to make a sudden departure from Miquelon.

 

Beguiddavalouet, Véronique
Born 1761 (?), place of birth not given – possibly Miramichi, New Brunswick; baptized by abbé Bonaventure in “Miramichy”, New Brunswick, date not given; daughter of: Bernard (Joseph?) Beguiddavalouet and Marie-Anne Gougou; possibly granddaughter of Chief Jeannot Peguidalouet and [?]; possibly great-granddaughter of Joseph Piguidaouaret and Therese [no family name given]; sister of: Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Louis Beguiddavalouet, and Anne-Marie [Bernard] Beguiddavalouet; sister-in-law of Janette Doujet; said to be living in the “Yles Berjaus” region of Newfoundland, probably the Burgeo Islands area (WHitehead 1991:174); married at the age of 17 years to François Doujet, 26 July, 1778, Miquelon; daughter-in-law of: Guillaume Doujet and Marie-Magdeleine Pegilahadeschz; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses: Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Pierre Gobersz, aged 40 years (Mi’kmaq); Pépin Richard dit Menouche (Eurocanadian interpreter living on Miquelon), his brother Germain Richard and a small group of Amerindians. None of them could sign. Note: the marriage took place in the middle of the night due to the fact that the Mi’kmaq group had to make a sudden departure from Miquelon.

 

Beri, Agathe
Wife of: Jean-Baptiste Sekaquet; mother of: Margueritte Sekaquet, baptized on 20 August, 1790, St. Pierre. Note: Is she the same person as Agathe Edouampiart, mentioned as being the wife of Jean-Baptiste Sekaquet in 1789?

 

[Bernard] Beguiddavalouet, Anne-Marie
Born: “à la St. Michel” [29 September] 1772 [place of birth not given]; daughter of Bernard (family name not given) [Beguiddavalouet] and Marie-Anne Gougou, visitors to Miquelon Island; possibly granddaughter of Chief Jeannot Peguidalouet and [?]; possibly great-granddaughter of Joseph Piguidaouaret and Therese [no family name given]; sister of Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Louis Beguiddavalouet, and Véronique Beguiddavaloouet; sister-in-law of Janette Doujet and François Doujet; baptized: 20 April, 1773, Miquelon;officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; Godfather: Jerome Barthelemi (Mi’kmaq); Godmother: Marie Barthelemi (Mi’kmaq); Also present: Jacob Abamou (Mi’kmaq). Note: Her father’s family name is not mentioned in the act. It appears that the officiating priest, abbé Paradis, did not know how to write it, and simply assigned her the family name of Bernard, after her father’s given name. The original act and the transcription do not differ, but a separate note attached to the original act contains various corrections not included in the transcription.

 

Bonis, Jeanne
Wife of: Jacques [family name not given]; godmother of: Jeanne Heli, 18 August, 1778, Miquelon; possibly aunt of: Jeanne Heli; possibly sister of: Pierre Bonis, and of Anne [family name not given] the mother of Jeanne Heli, and the wife of Jean Heli.

 

Bonis, Pierre
Godfather of: Jeanne Heli, 18 August, 1778, Miquelon; (maternal?) uncle of: Jeanne Heli; possibly son of: Charles [family name not given] and Magdeleine [family name not given]; possibly brother of: Jeanne Bonis, and of Anne [family name not given], the mother of Jeanne Heli, and the wife of Jean Heli.

 

Bounis, Jeanne
Wife of: Philippe Le Basq; mother of: Joseph Le Basq, baptized on 28 September, 1776, Miquelon.

 

Caboguy, [First name not given because officiating priest couldn’t understand it]
Husband of Caroline-Françoise Abassit; father of Patrice Caboguy, baptized 4 July, 1848, Miquelon. Note, this information is contained in a separate Miquelon parish register examined by detcheverry (1996).

 

Caboguy, Patrice
Born: during the summer (?) of 1847, presumably in Newfoundland; son of: father’s name not given because officiating priest could not understand it, mother was Caroline-Françoise Abassit(?); baptized at the age of about one year on 4 July, 1848, Miquelon; officiating priest: amateur-Jean Charlot. Note: this information is contained in a separate Miquelon register examined by Detcheverry (1996).

 

D’Agues, Bernard
Born: 1765 (?), place of birth not given; son of: Michel Giles D’Agues and the late Marie Angélique [family name not given]; married at the age of 20 years to Jeanne Germain, 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses: several Amerindians who did not know how to sign. Note: this was a transcription and some of the original information may have been left out.

 

D’Agues, Michel- Giles (sic)
Husband (widower) of Marie Angélique [family name not given]; father of: Bernard D’Agues, who married on 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre; father-in-law of Jeanne Germain.

 

Doucet, Isabelle
Wife of Raimond Etienéhuit; mother of: Esther-Marie Etienéhuit, who was baptized on 16 September, 1789, St. Pierre; probably the mother of Marie Joseph Remond, who was baptized on 8 November, 1786, St. Pierre, probably the godmother of Pauline Nikes, who was baptized on 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre.

 

Doujet, François
Born: 1752 (?), place of birth not given; baptized at”Port La Joye” [Charlottetwon, Prince Edward Island] by abbé Jacques Girard [date not given]; son of Guillaume Doujet and Marie-Magdeleine Pegilahadeschz; said to have come to Miquelon for Easter celebrations, and to be living in the “Yles Berjans” region of Newfoundland. This was probably the Burgeo Islands area (Whitehead 1991:174). Brother of: Janette Doujet; brother-in-law of: Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Louis Beguiddavalouet, and Anne-Marie [Bernard] Beguiddavalouet; married at about the age of 26 years to Véronique Beguiddavalouet on 26, July 1778, Miquelon; son-in-law of Bernard Beguiddavalouet and Marie-Anne Gougou; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses: Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Pierre Gobersz, aged 40 years (Mi’kmaq), Pépin Richard dit Menouche (Eurocanadian interpreter living on Miquelon), his brother Germain Richard, and a small group of Amerindians. None of them could sign. Note: the marriage took place in the middle of the night due to the fact that the Mi’kmaq group had to make a sudden departure from Miquelon.

 

Doujet, Guillaume
Husband of: Marie-Magdeleine Pegilahadesclez; father of François Doujet and Janette Doujet; visited Miquelon on 26 July, 1778, for the marriage of his two children. Note: said to have come to Miquelon for Easter celebrations and to be living in the “Iles Berjaus” region of Newfoundland. This was probably the Burgeo Islands area (Whitehead 1991:174).

Doujet, Janette
Daughter of Guillaume Doujet and Marie-Magdeleine Pegilahadesclez; sister of François Doujet; born 1758(?), place of birth not given- possibly Prince Edward Island; baptized by abbé Pierre Cassiet at the northeast parish of St. Louis on Prince Edward Island [date not given]; said to have come to Miquelon for Easter celebrations and to be living in the “Iles Berjaus” region of Newfoundland, probably the Burgeo Islands area (Whitehead 1991:174); married at the age of about 20 years to Louis Beguiddavalouet on 26 July, 1778, Miquelon; daughter-in-law of Bernard Beguiddavalouet and the late Marie-Anne Gougou; officiating priest abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses: Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Pierre Gobersz, aged 40 years (Mi’kmaq), Pépin Richard dir Menouche (Eurocanadian interpreter living on Miquelon), his brother Germain Richard, and a small group of Amerindians, one of whom could sign. Note: marrigae took place in the middle of the night due to the fact that the Mi’kmaq group had to make a sudden departure from Miquelon.

 

Doujet, Marie
Wife of Gabriel Pikteuaruel; mother of Veronique Pikteuaruel and of Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel, who was baptized on 15 July, 1778, Miquelon; sister-in-law of Louis Hugo Pikteuaruel; apparently born in Louisbourg, Cape Breton Island, and domiciled there.

 

Douset (sic), François
Father of Joseph-Marie Douset, baptized 30 July, 1786, Miquelon. Note: is he the same person as François Doujet?

 

Douset (sic), Joseph-Marie
Son of François Douset (sic) – mother’s name not given; born 11 April, 1786 – place of birth not given; conditional baptism at birth; baptized 30 July, 1786, Miquelon;officiating priest abbê Jean Longuville; godfather Grégoire Etienne Ehuit (sic), who made his mark; godmother not specified.

 

Edouampiart, Agathe
Wife of Jean-Baptiste Sekaquet; mother of Jean-Philipe Sekaquet, baptized on 16 September, 1789, St. Pierre. Note: is she the same person as Agathe Beri, shown as Jean-Baptiste Sekaquet’s wife in 1790?

 

Etienéhuit, Esther-Marie
Daughter of Raimond Etienéhuit and Isabelle Doucet; born 1787 (?), place of birth not given; conditional baptism at birth; baptized at the age of 2 years – 16 September, 1789, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; godfather: Jean-Jacques Devers (Eurocanadian), who put his mark; godmother: Esther Loyer (?) Deslandes (Eurocanadian), who put her mark.

 

Etienéhuit, Jean-André
Son of Grégoire Etienéhuit and Marie Guilleaume; born 1786(?), place of birth not given; conditional baptism at birth; baptized at the age of 3 years, 16 September, 1789, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; godfather: André La Vacquierre (Eurocanadian), who signed; godmother: Jeanette (sic) Godbout (Eurocanadian), who put her mark; died January, 1790 in Newfoundland at age 4 years; body transported to St. Pierre and buried 6 May, 1790; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; witnesses: abbé François Le Jamtel de la Bloutherie, Surgeon Major Edmée Henry, and Sieur Neveu, the last two of whom signed.

 

Etienéhuit, Raimond
Husband of Isabelle Doucet; father of Esther-Marie Etienéhuit, who was baptized on 16 September, 1789 in St. Pierre; probably the father of Marie-Joesph Remond who was baptized on 8 November, 1786, in St. Pierre

 

Etienne, Anne; see: Gougou, Anne (Marie?)

 

Etienne, Manon
Wife of Antoine Huri; mother of Denis Huri, baptized on 28 August, 1768, Miquelon. Note: apparently living in the Bonne Bay area of Newfoundland.

 

Etiennehuit, Anne
Born 1740 (?), place of birth not given; wife (widow) of André Gougou; mother of Anne (Marie?) Gougou, for whose marriage she appears to have been present at St. Pierre on 12 September, 1785 – her family name is given in that marriage as Etienne; died 25 May, 1786 in Newfoundland; her remains were transported to Miquelon by Amerindians and she was buried 6 September 1786; officiating priest abbé Jean-Baptiste Allain; witness: Jean Terriot (Eurocanadian).

 

Etiennehuit, Grégoire
Husband of Marie Mocoguenich; father of Julien Etiennehuit; father-in-law of Rasalie Gougou, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre; godfather of Joseph-Marie Douset (sic), 30 July, 1786, Miquelon

 

Etiennehuit, Julien
Son of Grégoire Etiennehuit and Marie Mocoguenich; place and date of birth and baptism not given; married to Rosalie Gougou on 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre; son-in-law of Louis Gougou and Marie-Marthe Guilleaume; brother-in-law of Julienne Gougou; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; witnesses: parents and friends none of whom knew how to sign or make a mark.

 

Germain, Antoine
Husband of Marie Barthelemi; father of Jeanne Germain; he had already died when Jeanne Germain married Bernard D’Aques on 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre.

 

Germain, Jeanne
Born 1771(?), place of birth not given; daughter of the late Antoine Germain and Marie Barthelemi; married at age 14 years to Bernard D’Aques, 12 September, 1785 in St. Pierre; daughter-in-law of Michel Giles D’Aques and the late Marie Angélique [family name not given]; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses: several Amerindians who did not know how to sign.

 

Gobersz, Pierre
Born 1738 (?), place of birth not given; mentioned as being married but name of wife not given; witness at marriages of Louis Beguiddavalouet and Janette Doujet, as well as François Doujet and Veronique Beguiddavalouet on 26 July, 1778, Miquelon.

 

Gougou, André
Husband of Anne Etiennehuit – he had already died prior to her burial at Miquelon on 6 September, 1786; father of Anne (Marie?) Gougou [Anne Etienne], who married 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre; father-in-law of Joseph Guillaume

 

Gougou, Anne (Marie?) [Anne Etienne]
Place and date of birth not given; daughter of André Gougou and Anne Etiennehuit; married to Joseph Guillaume, 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre; daughter-in-law of Bernard Guillaume and Marie Poucecoupé due to a lapse in the marriage act of 12 September, 1785, her name was omitted and a shortened form of her mother’s name (Anne Etienne instead of Etiennehuit) was substituted. Her name may have been either Anne or Marie. Officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses ; a group of Amerindians who did not know how to sign.

 

Gougou [Gugoo], Gabriel
On 31 May, 1778, he administered conditional baptism to Jean-Baptiste Piktearuel, in Codroy, Newfoundland. Note: he may have played the role of a Catholic Church catechist in the Codroy region of Newfoundland. Question: was he the descendant of an Irishman called Gogo?

 

Gougou, Julienne
Daughter of Louis Gougou and Marie-Marthe Guillaume; sister of Rosalie Gougou; sister-in-law of Julien Etiennehuit; born 1787 (?), place of birth not given; baptized at the age of 3 years, 8 September, 1790, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; godfather Julien Gregoire (Mi’kmaq), who made his mark; godmother: Julienne Andress (Mi’kmaq), who made her mark.

 

Gougou, Louis
Husband of Marie-Marthe Guilleaume; father of Rosalie Gougou, married 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre, and Julienne Gougou, baptized 8 September, 1790, St. Pierre; father-in-law of Julien Etiennehuit, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre. Note: he is mentioned by Major Peregrine Fras… Thorne, the British commander of St. Pierre, as having been in 1794 the principal spokesman of two Mi’kmaq families numbering eleven persons, who had come there in May to have their children baptized (PANL 1794:81-81v). The officiating priest was probably abbé Jean Longueville (David 1925:206). Louis Gougou appears to have been living in the Bay St. George region. Also mentioned in Pierronet (1800) and Rousseau (1962).

 

Gougou, Marie-Anne
Wife of Bernard Beguiddavalouet; mother of Gabriel Beguiddavalouet, Louis Beguiddavalouet, Véronique Beguiddavalouet, and Anne-Marie [Bernard] Beguiddavalouet; died 1778 in Newfoundland prior to the wedding of her son Louis. Accidental death caused by a rockfall while passing under a cape “en la grande terre de terre neuve”. This could have been at “Grande Terre” on the west coast of Newfoundland (Selma Barkham, pers. comm. 1997; Blais (1952:9) or simply somewhere in southern Newfoundland, Rousseau (1963:189). Note: said to have lived in the Iles Berjaus region of Newfoundland – probably the Burgeo Islands area (Whitehead 1991:174).

 

Gogogu, Rosalie
Daughter of Louis Gougou and Marie-Marthe Guillaume; sister of Julienne Gougou; place and date of birth and baptism not given; married to Julien Etiennehuit, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre; daughter-in-law of Grégoire Etiennehuit and Marie Mocoguenich; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; witnesses: parents and friends, none of whom knew how to sign or make a mark.

 

Gregoire, Julien
Godfather of Julienne Gougou, 8 September, 1790, St. Pierre.

 

Guichetout, Anne
Wife of Bernard Guilleaume; mother of Anne-Magdelenne Guilleaume; mother-in-law of Julien Helie, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre

 

Guillaume, Bernard
Husband of Marie Pouce-coupé father of Joseph Guillaume; father-in-law of Anne (Marie?) Etienne [Gougou], 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre

 

Guillaume, Charlotte (sic)
Godmother of Julien-Charles Abamou, 10 August, 1791, St. Pierre. Signed. She may have been a Métis (Lebailly 1996).

 

Guillaume, Joseph
Place and date of birth not given; son of Bernard Guillaume and Marie Pouce-Coupé married to Anne (Marie?) Etienne [Gougou] 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre; son-in-law of André Gougou and Anne Etienne; officiating priest abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; witnesses: a group of Amerindians who did not know how to sign. Note: this was a transcription and some of the original information may have been excluded.

 

Guilleaume (sic), Anne
Daughter of Joseph Guilleaume and Julienne Andress; born 1788 (?), place of birth not given; conditional baptism at birth, baptized at the age of 2 years, 8 September, 1790, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; godfather: Julien Helie, who did not know how to sign and made his mark; godmother: Anne Magdelenne Guilleaume (wife of Julien Helie), who did not know how to sign and made her mark.

 

Guilleaume (sic), Anne-Magdelenne (sic)
Daughter of Bernard Guilleaume and Anne Guichetout; place and date of birth and baptism not given;married to Julien Helie, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre; daughter-in-law of Jean Helie and Julienne Andress; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; witnesses: parents and friends, none of whom knew how to sign or make their mark; godmother of Anne Guilleaume, 8 September, 1790, St. Pierre

 

Guilleaume, Bernard
Husband of Anne Guichetout; father of Anne-Magdelenne Guilleaume; father-in-law of Julien Helie, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre.

 

Guilleaume, Joseph
Husband of Julienne Andress; father of Anne Guilleaume, who was baptized 8 September, 1790, St. Pierre

 

Guilleaume, Marie-Marthe
Wife of Louis Gougou; mother of Rosalie Gougou and of Julienne Gougou who was baptized on 8 September, 1790, St. Pierre; mother-in-law of Julien Etiennehuit, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre; mother-in-law of Julien Etiennehuit, 6 september, 1790, St. Pierre.

 

Heli, Jacques
Son of Jean Heli and Jeanne [family name not given], daughter of Charles [family name not given] and Magdelaine [family name not given]; born October, 1784 at “Baye des Hexesperes” [Bay Despair] in Newfoundland; conditionally baptized by a Mi’kmaq neighbour; baptized at the age of about 1 month, 8 November, 1784, St. Pierre – the father was absent; officiating priest: abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; godfather: Jacques Cabos, Eurocanadian, pensioner of the King, who signed; godmother: Josephine (Josette?) Le Roy, wife of Jacques Cabos, who did not sign. According to Bona Arsenault (1978:2218), her mother, Marie Charlotte, wife of Charles [Le] Roy, may have been part Mi’kmaq. Note: the mother of the baptized child was visiting St. Pierre and intended to return to Bay Despair on the first favourable occasion (“premier temps favorable”) in order to rejoin her husband there. The original act, as summarised above, was later transcribed and much of the information contained in it was apparently considered superfluous and left out. The condensed form reads in essence; “Jacques Helie, agé d’un mois, né à la Baie de Désespoir en l’Isle de Terrenueve, fils de Jean…bapteme le huit novembre 1784…parain et maraine Jacques Cabosse et Josephine Le Roi, signes J, Cabosse, Paradis.”

 

Heli, Jean
Husband of Anne [family name not given, possibly Bonis]; father of Jeanne Heli, baptized 18 August, 1778, Miquelon. Note: said to be living at Baye des Experes [Bay Despair] in Newfoundland. He is one possible candidate who might be identified as the John Elly mentioned in Newman’s Little Bay Ledger 1790-1791 (Newman Papers, Public Archives of Newfoundland).

 

Heli, Jeanne
Daughter of Jean Heli and Anne [family name not given, possibly Bonis] who herself was stated to be the daughter of Charles [family name not given, perhaps, Bonis] and his spouse Magdeleine [family name not given]; granddaughter of Charles [family name not given, perhaps Bonis] and Magdeleine [family name not given]; born 1 January, 1778 at “Baye des Experes” [Bay of Despair] in Newfoundland; conditionally baptized at birth at her home by Jacob Abamou; baptized 18 August, 1778, Miquelon; officiating priest abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; godfather: Pierre Bonis, an uncle (maternal?), did not sign; godmother: Jeanne Bonis, wife of Jacques [family name not given], did not sign. Note: both parents and godparents were said to be living in “Baye des Experes” [Bay Despair] in Newfoundland.

 

Helie, [The Elder?] Jean
Husband of Julienne Andress; father of Julien Helie; father-in-law of Anne-Margerette (sic) Guilleaume, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre; possibly adoptive father of Jean Martin, Montagnais. Note: he may have died prior to 1789, and his wife Julienne Andress may have married Joseph Guilleaume.

 

Helie, [The Younger?] Jean
Husband of Anne Sourien [Surien]; father of Jean-Marie-Noel Helie, buried 6 May, 1790, St. Pierre, and Marieanne-Francoise Helie, baptized 7 May, 1790, St. Pierre. Note: he may perhaps be the John Elly mentioned in the Newman’s Little Bay Ledger 1790-1791 (Newman Papers, Public Archives of Newfoundland).

 

Helie, Jean-Marie-Noel
Son of Jean Helie and Anne Surien [Sourien]; born 1786 (?), place of birth not given; died at age 4 years, February, 1790 at “Baye du (sic) Desespoir” [Bay Despair] in Newfoundland; his body was transported to St. Pierre for burial 6 May, 1790; officiating priest: abbé Jean Longueville; witnesses: Sieur Esmée Henry, surgeon major, and Sieur Neveu, both of whom signed.

 

Helie, Julien
Son of Jean Helie and Julienne Andress; place of birth and baptism not given; married to Anne-Magdelenne (sic) Guilleaume, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre; son-in-law of Bernard Guilleaume and Anne Guichetout; officiating priest: abbé Jean Longueville; witnesses: parents and friends, none of whom knew how to sign or make their mark; godfather of Jean Martin, Montagnais, 28 August, 1790, St. Pierre; godfather of: Anne Guilleaume, 8 September, 1790, St. Pierre

 

Helie, Marieanne-Francoise
Daughter of Jean Helie and Anne Sourien [Surien]; born 27 April, 1790 at Baye du Desespoir (Bay Despair) in Newfoundland; conditional baptism at birth; baptized 7 May, 1790, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; godfather Jean Neveu, Eurocanadian, who signed; godmother: Marie David, Eurocanadian, who signed.

 

Hely, Jean-Noel

Born February, 1786, place of birth not given; his parents names not given; conditional baptism at birth, baptized at the age of 7 months, 10 September, 1786, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; godfather: René Sassaure, Eurocanadian; godmother: Marie Sublisse, Eurocanadian. Note: this act was a transcription and some of the original information may have been left out.

 

Hobemouth, Jacques
Godfather of Joseph Le Basq, 28 September, 1776, Miquelon

 

Huri, Antoine
Husband of Manon Etienne; father of Denis Huri, baptized 28 August, 1768, Miquelon. Note: Possibly living in the Bonne Bay area, Newfoundland.

 

Huri, Denis
Son of Antoine Huri and Manon Etienne; born 1767(?) at Bonne Bay in Newfoundland; conditional baptism given by an Acadian in the absence of a priest; baptism 28 August, 1768, Miquelon; officiating priest abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; godfather: Pierre Tompic, Eurocanadian, did not sign; godmother: Anne Mancel, Eurocanadian, able to sign. Note: confusion in this act as to whether the godfather or the godmother did not know how to sign.

 

Le Basq, Joseph
Son of Phillippe Le Basq and Jeanne Bounis; date and place of birth not given; baptized 28 September, 1776, Miquelon; officiating priest abbé J. J. Bougnet; godfather: Jacques Hobemouth, Mi’kmaq, who did not sign; godmother: Jeanne Le Grand, widow Sabot, Eurocanadian, who did not sign.

 

Martin, Jean
Born 1780(?), place of birth not given; “Montannier” [Montagnais (Innu)]; parents’ names not given; adopted son of [given name not provided] Helie, Mi’kmaq, and [name of adoptive mother not given]; baptized at the age of 10 years, 24 August, 1790, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; godfather: Julien Helie, who made his mark, not knowing how to sign; godmother: Anne Le Blanc, wife of the Sr. Le Tiecq, who signed.

 

Mocoguenich, Marie
Wife of Grégoire Etiennehuit; mother of Julien Etiennehuit; mother-in-law of Rosalie Gougou, 6 September, 1790, St. Pierre.

 

Nikes, François
Husband of Judith [family name not given]; father of Pauline Nikes, who was baptized 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre.

 

Nikes, Pauline
Daughter of François Nikes and Judith [family name not given]; date and place of birth not given; baptized 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; godfather: Etienne Reymond [probably Raimond Etiennéhuit], Mi’kmaq; godmother: Isabelle [family name not given], Mi’kmaq – probably Isabelle Doucet, wife of Raimond Etiennéhuit. Note: this was a transcription and some of the original information may have been left out.

 

Pegilahadeschz, Marie-Magdeleine

Wife of Guillaume Doujet; mother of Francois Doujet and Janette Doujet; mother-in-law of Louis Beguiddavalouet, 26 July, 1778, Miquelon. Note: said to have come to Miquelon for Easter celebrations and to be living in the “Iles Berjaus” region of Newfoundland. This was probably the Burgeo Islands area (Whitehead 1991:174).

 

Peter, Marie Anne
Wife of Noel Bask; mother of Maly Bask, baptized on 1 May, 1825, Miquelon; sister of Mathieu Peter; possibly sister-in-law of Souzan Thomma; said to be living in Newfoundland. Note: This information was contained in a separate Miquelon parish register examined by Detcheverry (1996).

 

Peter, Mathieu
Possibly husband or brother-in-law of Souzan Thomma; brother of Marie Anne Peter; maternal uncle and godfather of Maly Bask, Baptized 1 May, 1825, Miquelon; brother-in-law of Noel Bask. Note: this information was contained in a separate Miquelon parish register examined by Detcheverry (1996).

 

Pikteuaruel, Gabriel
Husband of Marie Doujet; father of Veronique Pikteuaruel, and of Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel who was baptized 15 July, 1778, Miquelon; brother of Louis Hugo Pikteuaruel; apparently born in Louisbourg, Cape Breton Island, and living in that region.

 

Pikeuaruel, Jean-Baptiste
Son of Gabriel Pikteuaruel and Marie Doujet; brother of Veronique Pikteuaruel; nephew of Louis Hugo Pikteuaruel; born 1January, 1778, place of birth not given but possibly Codroy, Newfoundland; conditional baptism 31 May, 1778 at Codroy by a Catholic Irishman. Somewhat confusingly, the name of this lay person is said to have been Gabriel Gugoo [Gougou?]. A written certificate attesting to this emergency baptism was brought by the parents of Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel to Miquelon and given to the officiating priest, abbé Jean-Baptiste-Paradis, who also officiated at his baptism 15 July, 1778 on Miquelon; godfather: Louis Hugo Pikteuaruel, described as being a paternal uncle born in Louisbourg, Cape Breton Island. He did not sign. Godmother: Lisette Cormier, Eurocanadian from Miquelon, also did not sign.

 

Pikteuaruel, Louis Hugo
Brother of Gabriel Pikteuaruel; uncle of Veronique Pikteuaruel and Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel; brother-in-law of Marie Doujet; godfather of Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel, baptized 25 July, 1778, Miquelon; apparently born in Louisbourg, Cape Breton Island, and living in that region.

 

Pikteuaruel, Veronique
Daughter of Gabriel Pikteuaruel and Marie Doujet; sister of Jean-Baptiste Pikteuaruel, baptized 25 July 1778, Miquelon; niece of Louis Hugo Pikteuaruel; born November, 1774, place of birth not given; baptized at age 11 months, 13 October, 1775 at St. Germain de Rimouski, Quebec, by the Jesuit missionary Jean-Baptiste de La Brosse. A written certificate to this effect was given by her parents to abbé Jean-Baptiste Paradis on 15 July, 1778, in Miquelon. It is to be be noted that Father de La Brosse, taking advantage of the installation of a printing press in Quebec City in 1764, had instituted the practice from 1770 onward, of inscribing all his acts on printed formularies which were inserted into the parish registers kept by him (Hébert 1984:13,199); officiating priest Jean-Baptiste de La Brosse, S.J.; godfather: Louis Le Page, Eurocanadian of St. Germain de Rimouski; godmother: Geneviève Coté, Eurocanadian

 

Pouce-Coupé, Marie
Wife of Bernard Guillaume; mother of Joseph Guillaume; mother-in-law of Anne (Marie?) Gougou [Etienne], 12 September, 1785, St. Pierre.

 

Remond [Etienehuit?], Marie-Joseth
Daughter of Remond [probably Raimond Etienehuit] and Isabelle Doucet. The officiating priest may simply have assigned her father’s given name as the family name; born September, 1786 at “Baie de Désespoir” [Bay Despair] in Newfoundland; no mention of conditional baptism; baptized at 1 1/2 months, 8 November, 1786, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean-Baptiste-François Paradis; godfather: Guillaume Trognac, Eurocanadian, who signed; godmother: Joseth Lopé, Eurocanadian, who did not sign. Note: this act is a transcription and some of the original information may have been left out.

 

Reymond, Etienne; see Raimond Etienehuit
Godfather of Pauline Nikes, who was baptized 12, September, 1785, St. Pierre. Note: due to a mix-up by the officiating priest, this is probably the same person as Raimond Etiennehuit.

 

Sekaquet, Jean-Baptiste
Husband of Agathe Edouampiart, 1789. One year later, in 1790, the name of his wife is given as Agathe Beri. A mistake, or had he remarried someone who coincidentally had the same given name as his first wife?; father of Jean-Philipe Sekaquet, baptized 16 September, 1789, and Margueritte Sekaquet, baptized 20 August, 1790, both at St. Pierre. Possibly also the father of Anastasie [anon.] who was baptized on 6 June, 1785, St. Pierre.

 

Sekaquet, Jean-Philipe (sic)
Son of Jean-Baptiste Sekaquet and Agathe Edouampiart; born 1787 (?), place of birth not given; conditional baptism at birth; baptized at the age of 2 years, 16 September, 1789, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; godfather: Jean-Baptiste Colin , Eurocanadian,who signed; godmother: Jeannette Turnier (?), Eurocanadian, who put her mark.

 

Sekaquet, Margueritte (sic)
Daughter of Jean-Baptiste Sekaquet and Agathe Beri; born July 1790, place of birth not given; conditional baptism at birth; baptized at the age of one month, 20 August, 1790, St. Pierre; officiating priest abbé Jean Longueville; godfather: Pierre Canet, Eurocanadian, who signed; godmother: Margueritte Canet, Eurocanadian, who signed.

 

Souly, François
Born 1832 (?), Newfoundland; son of Pierre Souly and Françoise [family name not given]; died in 1847 at age 15 in Newfoundland; his body was presumably brought to Miquelon from Newfoundland; buried 4 July, 1848, officiating priest Amateur-Jean Charlot; witnesses: Chief Michel Agathe and other Amerindians who did not know how to sign.

 

Souly, Pierre
Husband of Françoise [family name not given]; father of François Souly, buried 4 July, 1848, Miquelon.

 

Sourien [Surien], Anne

Wife of Jean Helie [The Younger?]; mother of Jean-Marie-Noel Helie, buried 6 May, 1790, St. Pierre, and Marieanne-Françoise Helie, baptized 7 May, 1790, St. Pierre.

 

Thomma, Souzan
Possibly sister of Noel Bask; possibly sister-in-law of Anne Marie Peter; possibly sister-in-law, or wife, of Mathieu Peter; aunt and godmother of: Maly Bask, baptized 1 May, 1825, Miquelon. Note: this information was contained in a separate Miquelon register examined by Detcheverry (1996).

 

 

Return to Top